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Court Cases pre-1900
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) established the "very essence of judicial duty" is deciding what laws conform to the Constitution—("Judicial Review")
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) US Constitution is "the supreme law of the land," create bureaucracy
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824)the Constitution defines federal power to regulate commerce; empowers the congress to broaden their scope regarding commerce, broadens the commerce clause
Dreadscott v. Sanford
(1857) supreme court chief justice Roger Tawny stated that blacks are property and popular sovereignty is unconstitutional (you cannot declare that property can be deprived to an individual)
Munn v. Illinois
(1876) Federal government can regulate business across state lines (leads to the establishment of interstate commerce).
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) racial discrimination: "separate but equal."