45 terms

Chapter 3 (Psych 200)

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Newborns (0-2 years old)
Covered with vernix, bowlegged, head distorted by birth canal
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
28 behavior items and 18 reflex tests to evaluate autonomic, motor, state and social systems
Alert inactivity
Calm with eyes open; taking in the environment
Waking activity
Eyes are open and unfocused; burts of uncoordinated motion
Crying
Cries vigorously and has agitated motion
Sleeping
Eyes closed; at times, still and breathing regularly; at other times, moving gently and breathing irregularly
Basic cry
Soft and gradual, then more intense
- Usually occurs when baby is tired or hungry
Mad cry
More intense version of the basic cry
Pain cry
Sudden long burst of crying followed by a long pause and gasping
3 months
Ignore baby's cries? (Not first ___ ___________)
16-18 hours
Newborns sleep ________/day. (cycle of 3 hours sleep and one hour wakefulness)
10-12 hours
Most babies start sleeping _________ throughout the night after 6 months.
REM
Half of babies sleep is _______ (usually associated with dreaming). Arms and legs move, as do the eyes under the eyelids.
25%
REM sleep drops to _______ by first birthday.
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
- Risk factors - 2-4 months of age, born prematurely and/or low birth weight, parents smoke, sleeping face down rather than on back, too many blankets or sleepwear
- 1994 "Back to Sleep" public info campaign to prevent SIDS
3 types of temperament
Easy, difficult, slow to warm up (influenced by heredity and environment)
Growth of the body
- Double birth weight in 3 months & triple by 1st birthday
- Body growth needs 40% of body's energy (50 calories per pound of body weight)
- Should ingest 50 calories per pound of body weight
Impact of malnutrition
** One in four children worldwide under age of 5 is malnourished
** Especially damaging during infancy
- Results in children who are small for their age
- Damages the brain and affects learning
- Leads to lethargy, which in return leads to parental neglect
Brain and nervous system
- Neurons make up the brain
- Cerebral cortex: region of the brain that controls higher-level thinking
- Consists of right and left hemispheres joined by the corpus callosum
Cerebral cortex
The wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human
Nerve cells (Neurons)
A basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
Dendrite
The end of the neuron that receives information from other neurons
Cell body
The center of the neuron that contains biological machinery to keep the cell alive
Axon
A tubelike structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons
Terminal button
Small knobs at the end of the axon that release neurotransmitters
Synaptic pruning
A gradual reduction in the number of synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing until early adolescence
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals released by terminal buttons that allow neurons to communicate with one another
Hemispheres
Right and left halves of the cortex
Frontal cortex
Located at the front of the cerebral cortex; personality and executive functions largely centered here
Temporal lobe
Hearing, advanced visual processing
Parietal lobe
Body sensations
Occipital lobe
Vision
Specialization in brain development
Young children can recover brain skills lost due to injury more easily than older children and adults
Gross motor skills
Movement
Fine motor skills
Grasping, holding, and manipulating objects. Body is top-heavy
Grasping objects
Hand, and then fingers against palm, then finger to thumb
5 years old
Typically can dress and undress self by ___________.
12-15 months
Walking skills take _____________.
Smell
Recognize familiar smells; react positively to sweet smells & negatively to bad smells
Taste
Prefer sweet taste and not sour or bitter
Touch
Sensitive, react to pain
Hearing
Hear best in range of human speech
Vision
Weak at birth (near-sighted)
By 3 months, can see colors
Fully developed by age 1
Size constancy
Depth perception cues
Prefer human faces
Self-awareness
- Babies do not recognize themselves in mirror till 15-18 months (red dot on nose test)
- _____________________ between 18-24 months (use own name/pronoun, knowledge of age/gender)
Theory of mind
- Understanding relationship between mind and behavior (develops between 2-5)
- By age 4, understand that behavior is a result of one's beliefs (even if beliefs are wrong)