39 terms

Chapter 4 (Psych 200)

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Schemes/schemas
Psychological structures that organize experience
Assimilation
New experiences are incorporated into an existing schema
Accommodation
Schemes are modified based on a new experience
Sensorimotor stage
Infancy birth to 2 years
Preoperational stage
- Object permanence
- Egocentrism
Object permanence
The understanding, acquired in infancy, that objects exist independently
Egocentrism
The child believes that all people see the world as he or she does
Children's Naïve Theories
- Growth : animate objects get bigger with time
- Internal parts: a human has blood and bones while a rock does not
- Inheritance: living things resemble their parents
- Healing: their own hair will grow back while their dolls will not
Information processing
Ex. Mental hardware and software
Mental hardware
Mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate
Mental software
Mental "programs" that are the basis for performing particular tasks
Orienting response
An unfamiliar stimulus produces a change in heart and brain waves
Habituation
Becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly
Classical conditioning (association)
A neutral stimulus elicits a response originally produced by another stimulus
- Example: running water makes an infant cry because he knows he is getting a bath
Operant conditioning (consequences)
Reward and punishment determine the likelihood that behavior will reoccur
- Example: a baby's smile is rewarded with a hug; therefore, she will be more likely to smile in the future
Observational learning
Imitation
Memory
Hippocampus and amygdala involved with memory formation/storage
Frontal cortex
_______________ involved with retrieval of memories.
Autobiographical memory
People's memory of the experience/events of their own lives
One to one principle
There is one and only one number for each object counted
Stable order principle
Number names must be counted in the same order
Cardinality principle
The last number names differ from previous ones in a sequence by denoting the number of objects
Counting
Ex. One to one principle, stable order principle, cardinality principle
Vygotsky
- Zone of proximal development
- Scaffolding
- Private speech
Zone of proximal development
The difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone
Scaffolding
A style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs
Private speech
A child's comments that are not intended for others but are designed instead to help regulate the child's behavior
Phonemes
Unique sounds that can be used to create words
Cooing
Early vowel-like sounds that babies produce
Babbling
Speech-like sounds that consist of vowel-consonant combinations and are common at about 6 months
Vocabulary
A few hundred words (age 2) and up to 14,000 by age six
Learning new words
Naming errors (underextension and overextension)
Underextension
When children define words more narrowly than adults do
Overextension
When children define words more broadly than adults do
Referential style
Vocabularies consist mostly of words that name people, objects, or actions
Expressive style
Vocabularies contain some names but also social phrases
Telegraphic speech
Includes only words directly relevant to meaning
Overregularization
Applying the grammatical rules to words that are the exceptions to the rule
Oral communication
Take turns, be clear, let others know remarks make no sense