179 terms

Mrs Howard IC3 Living Online

This is a list of terms you will need to know to take the IC3 Living online exam.
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hub
network device that connects PCs together to form a network where all users share equal transfer speeds from the total network connection speed
ping
DOS command that test connectivity and isolates hardware problems and any mismatched configurations
brute force attacks
using a script or program to log on to an account using hundreds of words/phrases stored in a dictionary file
browser hijacking
hackers using spyware to control your browser
hacking
invading someone else's computer, usually for personal gain or the satisfaction of defeating a security system
cracking
breaking into computers for malicious purposes; to obtain information for financial gain, shut down hardware, pirate software, steal people's information, or alter or destroy data
keylogger
malicious program that records keystrokes
public key
deciphers the information in an SSL certificate
private key
encrypts the information in an SSL certificate
SSL (secure sockets layer)
certificates for e-commerce sites, sites that produce sensitive data, and sites that require privacy and security requirements
RSI (repetitive strain injury)
chronic physical malady that can result when a person makes too many of the same motions over a long period of time
sniffer
program that hackers use to capture IDs and passwords on a network
spyware
software installed surreptiously on a personal computer with the goal of collecting and transmitting information about the user, the user's browsing habits, and other personal information
strong password
complex and secure, containing at least 8 characters and at least one letter, one number, and one special character
collaboration software
collection of programs that help people share ideas, create documents, and conduct meetings, regardless of location or time zone
social network
sites that individuals are invited to allow to join and support such tools as instant messaging and email among members
ergonomics
field of study concerned with the fit between people and their work environment
carpal tunnel syndrome
also known as cumulative trauma disorder or RSI, caused by repeated motions that damage nerves in hands, wrists, and arms
digital piracy
unauthorized reproduction and distribution of computer based media
e-learning
learning without requiring students to be at a specific location at a specific time; use of computers and computer programs to replace teachers and the time place specificity of learning
Google docs
free web based word processor and spreadsheet that allows project members to share and edit documents online
wiki
collection of web pages designed to let anyone with access contribute or modify content
input
action of receiving data
data
raw facts such as a list of numbers
processing
action done on the input to obtain information
information
data converted into a meaningful form
output
actual displaying of the processed data
storage
saving of output for later use
input device
enables you to enter data into the computer for processing, such as a keyboard or a mouse
communication
high speed movement of data or information within and between computers
computer system
group of associated components that work together
network
connects two or more computers to share input/output devices and other resources through the use of a network interface card
NIC (network interface card)
the device that enables a workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers
archiving
process of backing up your e-mail messages
attachment
document, image, figure, or other file that is attached to an e-mail message
mailing list
used to send the same e-mail message to a group; also called a distribution list
email (electronic mail)
using an carrier to transfer a message from one location to another electronically
email address
electronic address consisting of the username of an individual, the @ symbol, and the user's domain name
instant messaging
sending messages in real time using the Internet; requires both parties to be online in order to send them back and forth
packets
small chunks of data that travel independently from server to server when an e-mail message is sent and are recombined at the final destination
signature
text and/or pictures that are automatically added to the end of any outgoing message
LAN (local area network)
type of network used to describe computers that are connected in a single physical location
WAN (wide area network)
type of network used to describe computers that are connected to several different locations in different cities and buildings
IP address
unique number assigned to each device connected to the Internet
IP (internet protocol)
protocol that allows information to be exchanged across the internet and across varying platforms that may be accessing or sending information; includes v4 (32-bit) and v6 (128 bit)
protocol
rules used by electronic devices to communicate with each other
browser
software program used to browse the Internet
ISP (internet service provider)
company that provides its clients with an IP address and a connection to the Internet
URL (uniform resource locator)
web address for a site that directs a browser to a specific IP address; website, FTP site, audio stream, or other Internet resource
DNS (domain name server)
distributed database that links names to a specific IP address
intranet
self-contained intra-organizational network that is designed using the same technology as the Internet, but limited to use within the organization
client
computer that is connected to a network and requests data from a server
node
another name for a client
server
computer designated to handle requests for data transfers from client computers on a network
email client
computer program used to access and manage a user's email
web mail
email accessed through a web browser
recipient
person who an email is sent to
virus
potentially damaging computer program that may alter the way the computer performs without the users knowledge or permission; usually written by a hacker to cause corruption of data on a computer
client/server model
for a local area network, a hierarchical model in which one or more computers act as dedicated servers, and all the remaining computers act as clients
file extension
the suffix after the period at the end of a filename which denotes what type of data the file contains;
malware
any program or virus that is intended to exploit a computer without the owners consent, often to perform functions or obtain and transmit information to others
internet
massive interconnection of computer networks that allows them to communicate
firewall
special hardware and software that protects individual companies' networks from external networks; security feature used for large networks that controls computers from one point
blog
journal maintained by an individual or a group and posted on a website for public viewing and comment
filtering
process that can be used to cut down or eliminate most junk mail
logic bomb
virus triggered by the appearance or disappearance of specified data
netiquette
refers to good manners and proper behaviors when communicating through electronic media
phishing
uses email messages for personal information scams
tagging
used in blogs and other informational sites to simplify the search process
time bomb
virus that does not cause its damage until a certain data or until the system has been booted a certain number of times
trojan horse
virus that does something different from what it is expected to do
worm
virus that makes may copies of itself, resulting in the consumption of system resources that slows down or actually halts a task
Active X
programming interface developed by Microsoft for Windows; set of rules that control Windows applications that are downloaded from the Internet and then run in a browser
digital certificate
electronic document similar to an ID card; a notice that guarantees a user or a web site is legitimate; an attachment to an e-mail message or data embedded in a web site that verifies the identity of a sender or web site
domain
identifies a computer or website on the Internet
FTP (file transfer protocol)
protocol used to upload files from one computer to another and retrieve files from a server to a computer
hit
number of websites returned by a search engine based on your keywords
home page
first page that appears in the browser when you visit a website
podcast
method of publishing files (primarily audio) to the Internet that can be streamed or downloaded for playback on a computer or a personal digital audio player
portal
website that features useful content, but also contains links to other sites
web cache
temporary storage area on your computer for collecting data; used to temporarily store files for faster access
website
collection of related HTML formatted web pages located on the World Wide Web
Boolean logic
consists of three logical operators (and, or, not) that help refine search results
keywords
words or phrases that are used in a search engine to find information online
newsfeed
data format used for providing users with frequently updated content
peer to peer
network that connects computers directly instead of through a central server
public domain
when copyright or patent protection has lapsed on certain material and it is available for anyone to copy or use
search engine
tool used to search for information online
trademark
visual or commercial images protected by law, similar to copyrights
World Wide Web
subset of the Internet that uses HTTP to communicate data through web browsers
text messaging
uses cell phone technology to send messages
modem
communications hardware device that facilitates the transmission of data; converts digital signals to analog for transmission and then reconverts the signal to digital at the receiving end
auto reply
used in email to set up and automatically reply if you are not in the office
bias
not objective, slanted towards a particular view
cookie
small piece of data stored by a browser with information about the computer and its activity; can either be first-party (created by the web page being viewed) or third party (created by someone other than the displayed web page's publisher)
>>
when replying to an email, the text from previous email usually appears with this symbol to the left;
@
at sign; separates the email client and the domain name; also known as the email address separator
validity
truthfulness and accuracy of information presented on a website
plug-in
small program that allows a browser to access certain types of media content
digital signal
electronic signal that varies information; does not vary smoothly with time, but changes in steps between certain values and can be represented by a series of numbers; represents the binary value of the data being transmitted
analog signal
electronic signal having the characteristic of being continuous and changing smoothly over a given range, rather than switching suddenly between certain levels; most uses are outdated
frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
amplitude
the height of a wavelength from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough
DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol)
protocol used by a server to assign different IP addresses to computers on a network when they first access the network.
HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol)
protocol that defines how messages are formatted and transmitted over the World Wide Web
TCP (transmission control protocol)
a protocol developed for the internet to get data from one network device to another
UDP (user datagram protocol)
connectionless protocol that does not require a connection to send a packet and does not guarantee that the packet arrives at its destination
OSI (open system interconnect) standard
seven layer protocol, with each layer defining one segment of operations that must occur in a network data communication
TCP/IP standard
five layer protocol, with each layer defining one segment of operations that must occur in a network data communication; session, presentation and application are one segment
physical layer
lowest or 1st layer; protocols generate and detect signals so as to transmit and receive data over a network medium, also set the data transmission rate and monitor data error rates, but do not provide error correction
data link layer
2nd layer; bridges the networking media with the network layer; primary function is to divide the data it receives from the network layer into frames to be transmitted by the physical layer
network layer
3rd layer; protocols translate network addresses into their physical counterparts and decide how to route data from the sender to the receiver; known as the Internet layer in the TCP/IP standard
transport layer
4th layer; protocols ensure that data are transferred from point A to point B reliably and without errors; services include flow control, acknowledgment, error correction, segmentation, reassembly, and sequencing
session layer
5th layer; establishes and maintains communication between two nodes on the network; considered the "traffic cop" of the transmission
presentation layer
6th layer; protocols translate between application and network layers; data is formatted so that the network can understand, with the format varying according to the type of network; manages data encryption and decryption, such as scrambling of system passwords
application layer
7th layer; protocols enable software programs to negotiate formatting, procedural, security, synchronization, and other requirements with the network
PDU (protocol data unit)
segments of data of varying length that move up or down the protocol layers
attenuation
the extent to which a signal has weakened after traveling a given distance
topology
the configuration of a communication network
backbone
the part of a network that connects other networks together; the primary media in a bus or bus hybrid topology
bus topology
a networking configuration in which all devices are connected to a central high-speed cable called the bus or backbone
star topology
a network topology in which a cable runs from each computer to a single central point
ring topology
a network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another
mesh topology
the topology of a network whose components are all connected directly to every other component
DoS (denial of service)
attack that attempts to consume network resources so that the network or its devices cannot respond to legitimate requests
IP spoofing
security attack in which an outsider obtains internal IP addresses, then uses those addresses to pretend that he or she has authority to access a private network from the Internet
MAC (media access control)
restricts access to only those devices that have recognized this address; this address and digital certificates in the access control matrix make it possible to limit access to certain users
WPA (wi-fi protected access)
security standard that improves on older security standards by authenticating network users and providing more advanced encryption techniques; generally used for wireless communications
WEP (wired equivalent privacy)
optional security mechanism designed to make the link integrity of wireless devices equal to that of a cable
hybrid topology
combines two topologies together to form a network
repeater
electronic device that amplifies a signal before transmitting it again
bandwidth
the amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time
switch
network device that forwards a signal only to the addressed node
bridge
a connection between two networks, often with dissimilar networking technologies or media
router
an intelligent connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send it onward toward its destination
wi-fi (wireless fidelity)
a local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances of a few hundred feet
SMTP (simple mail transport protocol)
protocol that is used for email, especially the sending of email
HTML (hypertext markup language)
the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web; defines the structure and layout of a web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
organization that sets standards for how systems communicate over the Internet (for example, how protocols operate and interact).
Cc (carbon copy)
contains the email address and optional identity for any additional recipient(s) to which the message is also to be delivered
Bcc (blind carbon copy)
contains the email address and optional identity of any additional recipients who will receive a message without knowing the identity of the primary sender or any addressees
POP3 (post office protocol)
third version; used to transfer incoming messages from a mail server to a client
VPN (virtual private network)
a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network
MIME (multipurpose Internet mail extensions)
encode the content of the message body so that the receiving email client can display the message as it was received
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
a code that associates individual bytes with letters, numbers and characters
spam
unwanted e-mail (usually of a commercial nature sent out in bulk)
CMC (computer mediated communication)
electronic communications that provide voice, data, and image transmissions
IMAP (Internet message access protocol)
protocol that downloads the header information of the messages in the mail server mailbox to the client box; more commonly used by mobile devices
POTS (plain old telephone service)
a connection that is extremely slow, but is available wherever there is a telephone; a modem uses the telephone line to transmit and receive data; this method of connection is known as dial-up
PSTN (public switched telephone network)
a general term referring to the variety of telephone networks and services in place worldwide; used by modems to transmit and receive signals
VTS (virtual team space)
asynchronous, secure workspace in which networked team members, regardless of geographical locations, collaborate on a project independently or cooperatively; also called groupware
GUID (globally unique identifier)
identification number that is generated by a hardware component or a program; also called user identity
flame
an impolite or offensive message sent electronically
AUP (acceptable use policy)
user code of conduct that defines the netiquette; language, warnings, cautions, and restrictions on the type of information that should or should not be shared; also defines consequences for violations
hypertext link
mechanism used to interconnect and create a direct pathway to a website; also called a hyperlink
media
the means by which transmitted signals are carried on a network, such as cables or radio frequency
baseband
a type of transmission in which the entire channel capacity of the communications medium (such as cable) is used by one data signal, enabling only one node to transmit at a time
broadband
a communications network in which the bandwidth can be divided and shared by multiple simultaneous signals (as for voice or data or video)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
international organization with a focus on electrical, electronics, and information technology topics; its standards are well respected and followed by vendors around the world
integrity
correspondence of data with itself at its creation; data lacks this when it has been changed accidentally or tampered with
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
government-backed agency that controls the assignment of domain names and IP addresses.
XML (extensible markup language)
programming language that uses author-defined tags to identify each data entry so that the data can be easily imported into other applications
spider
a computer program that scans the internet looking for publicly accessible resources that can be added to a database; also called a crawler
metasearch engine
a computer program that searches several engines at once and integrates the findings of the various search engines to answer queries posted by users
twisted-pair cable
cables made of copper wires that are twisted around each other and are surrounded by a plastic jacket (such as traditional home phone wire)
coaxial cable
single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic insulation and sheathing; used mainly in cable television and cable Internet service
fiber-optic cable
thin bundles of glass or plastic capable of transmitting thousands of messages converted to shooting pulses of light along cable wires; can carry broadcast channels, telephone signals, and all sorts of digital codes
NAT (network address translation)
translates the IP address assigned to a local connection into a generic IP address that is sent out on the WAN; networks are protected because the actual IP address is unknown
IPSec (internet protocol security)
applies encryption at the network or internet layer, either with transport mode (encrypts only payload) or tunnel mode (encrypts entire packet)
error code 401
code meaning unauthorized request (valid username and password was not entered)
error code 403
code meaning forbidden/access denied (attempt was made to access restricted file or directory for which a password or specific permission is required)
error code 404
code meaning file not found (URL entered or included in a hyperlink is misspelled or no longer exists)
error code 500
code meaning server error (server hosting a service is unable to respond due to an internal error)
error code 503
code meaning service unavailable (server hosting a requested site is either too busy or is experiencing service interruption)
error code 504
code meaning gateway timeout (requesting gateway timed out due to non-response from the host server)
error code 505
code meaning HTTP version not supported (HTTP version used to make the request on the host server is not supported)
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
U.S. government agency in the Department of Labor that issues guidelines and regulations to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
rootkit
malware used by an intruder to break into a computer, obtain special privileges to perform unauthorized functions, and then hide all traces of its existence
VoIP (voice over Internet protocol)
protocol that transmits phone calls over the same data lines and networks that make up the Internet; also called Internet telephony