1.1 Cultural, Economic, and Political Globalization
Terms in this set (29)
Uehling's definition of globalization
The process in which regions have become more interdependent through increased communication, trade, and transportation through increased movement of goods, capital and idea.
The idea that globalism is already on the rise, cannot be stopped, and is a positive and equal. The world is becoming one unit, states are losing importance.
the world is flat-everyone is working on a level playing field
The idea that globalization is in the hands of the wealthy and powerful countries which will result in hierarchies and power dynamics. Belief in continuity. They think the nation-states will remain important for trade and power.
An intermediate of the other two groups listed above. They believe that globalization is unpredictable, and they disagree with the idea that globalization is a positive change (hyperglobalist).
The enhanced interdependence of state economies as a result of increased cross border trade and foreign investment
How does globalization increase global economic inequalities?
-Free Trade Agreements
-Foreign direct investment
-Remove bans and embargos
How does globalization decrease global economic inequalities?
-Taxation of multinational corporations
-Tariffs or bans on foreign goods
-Subsidies to domestic industries
The spread of cultures to different regions of the world
Three Responses to Cultural Flow-Accommodation
A society adapts to change by modifying their beliefs/behavior to resemble what is "called for" by the new globalized society
Three Responses to Cultural Flow-Resistance
A society adapts to change by finding methods to maintain their traditional beliefs/behavior without concerning for the changes being produced by globalization
Three Responses to Cultural Flow-Hybridity
A society adapting to the change by finding a mix/balance of their traditional beliefs/behaviors with certain aspects of the new, globalized culture which in turn produces new beliefs/behaviors
the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit without giving credit, belittling the significance of that aspect
Cultural Appropriation compared to Hybridity
-Trivializes historical oppression
-Borrowing is disrespectful
-Borrowers benefit or are rewarded in way people of origin cannot
Bretton Words (a.k.a. The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference)
Main idea: The world needed to take actions towards economic stability in the time period after the Great Depression and World War 2. It created institutions which integrated many economic systems. The concentration of power amongst allies that met shared the view that capitalism was the best path
Institution created at Bretton Woods-International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Main goals were to prevent another great depression and to stabilize weak economies and currencies. Helps trade stay stable.
Institution created at Bretton Woods-International Bank of Reconstructing and Development (IBRD)
Created to administer grants and loans to countries whose economies were devastated by World War 2. Rebuilding war-torn European countries after WW2. It now serves to help developing countries.
Institution created at Bretton Woods-General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Overall purposed was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. Decades later, the World Trade Organization following up the agreement at Bretton Woods.
A product of cultural and economic globalization (Hoffman). Democracy is on the rise.
When did globalization begin?
-No consensus on the origin of globalization
-It has been going on since the beginning of humanity from it's first steps
The four phases of globalization-Archaic 206 BCE
-Silk Road have their name from the lucrative silk trade. Created a flow of goods, human capital and ideas. People become dependent on these things.
The four phases of globalization-Age of exploration 1500w-1700s
-Old and New Worlds connect
-Rise of colonial empires and global inequalities
-Trading relationship between colonies and colonizers
The four phases of globalization-Industrialization 1890s-1914
-People communicate across oceans in real time (telegraph, telephone, and the steam engine)
-Lots of immigration
The four phases of globalization-Contemporary
-Individuals can globalize their knowledge without going through institutions
-You can upload your info, globalize your content
-When something is removed from a singular, tangible, and local context to an abstract or virtual state
-Something that can be accessed anywhere
-Being able to identify the author of a work of art
-What counts as original, authentic--This is becoming difficult when more things are disembodied from an original location
"Time-Space Compression" (Harvey 1989)
When technology makes distance less important and activities accelerate
time-space compression-at stake:
-Limits definition of community--no longer limits of geography
-Enhanced knowledge/potential of conflict
-Quality of personal relationships
-What it means to be intimate
Main Anti-Globalization Concerns
-Worker safety conditions