Solar System - Science Olympiad

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How did the terrestrial planets form?
In the proto-Solar-Sytem, after the sun formed, the rest of the materials orbiting close around it began to clump together too. However, closer to the sun, lighter materials like gases blew away and only rocky material was left, causing the four terrestrial planets, and some of their moons, to form.
What are the characteristics of Terrestrial Planets?
Solid bodies with a core surrounded by a mantle and crust. Comprised mostly of heavier materials, like rocks, stones, and heavy metals like nickel and iron. They are smaller in size than the gas giants and very dense in comparison.
How old is the Solar System?
4.6 billion years.
How did Mercury form?
Like the rest of the terrestrial planets, Mercury was formed 4.55 billion years ago and is primarily rocky. After the sun's formation, the rocks and metals very close it it began to come together to form Mercury. However, all of Mercury's gases and atmosphere were blown away, leading to it being small, but even more rocky than the other planets.
How did Venus form?
Venus, like Mercury, was formed by rocks and metals coming together to form a large planet. However, solar winds are too weak to blow away Venus' atmosphere, and the heat has led to a greenhouse gas effect, causing the planet to be especially hot, even more so than Mercury, though being further away.
How did Earth form?
Earth formed in the same way as the rest of the terrestrial planets. However, another large body slammed into Earth (which used to be larger) and the material from that body and the chunk of Earth blown off formed the moon, which is why is has such a large size in comparison to Earth.
How did Mars form?
Mars was most likely very similar to Earth, and it had formed the same way as well. It possibly even had large oceans. However, for unknown reasons, they have dried up, leading to Mars' nickname as "The Red Planet."
How did the Moon form?
Long ago, when the Earth was younger, and larger, another body slammed into it. This body blew into pieces that began to orbit the Earth, along with chunks of Earth blown off from the impact. Together, these formed the Moon, being responsible for its relatively large size.
What are the surface features of Mercury?
Mercury's surface is made of volcanic basalt (a hint towards prior geologic activity) and is very smooth. However, Mercury has a no real atmosphere, allowing almost any incoming asteroids to impact, though they are stopped by it's thick mantle. As a result, Mercury looks like a smooth, dark grey planet peppered with large and small round imprints. Mercury also has ridges all across it's surface. As the magma on Mercury cools, it shrinks, since solids are more compact than liquids. Mercury's surface is also made up of intercrater plains, accounting for almost half of the planet's surface area. Intercrater plains are made up of flatter lands containing older more shallow craters, while smooth plains are made up of newer land and more recent deeper craters. Smooth plains make up around 15% of mercury's surface
What are the internal features of Mercury?
Mercury has an extremely large core relative to its size. The core is mostly iron and iron compounds and is about 1800 km in diameter. The mantle and crust are only 600 km in Diameter, and are mostly silicates. This is because the temperature of the early son evaporated and destroyed a large portion of the rocky material, causing the core to be larger than it normally would be, as it is the size of a core in what would be a much larger planet. The core seems to have a liquid outer core and superdense solid liquid core.
Features to look for in identifying Mercury?
Dark Grey surface, round, shallow imprints into the surface, a relatively smooth surface, a relatively large core of iron and iron compounds, and a planet about 2500 km in diameter.
Surface features of Venus?
Venus' surface appears red due to the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but its surface is covered in lava from volcanic activity, basaltic rocks, and sulfuric acid. It has very few craters, since the extremely heavy atmosphere destroys any craters that would impact. Only strong asteroids can survive, of which there are very few. There are two "continents"- Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. These are the few parts of Venus with solid land, and are made of mostly rough, patchy rocks with valleys and canyons. The rest of the surface is mostly melted rock- lava and magma.
Internal features of Venus'?
Venus' internal surface is mostly normal, with a metallic core, rocky mantle and crust. However, about 300-500 million years ago, there seems to have been a "resurfacing" in which large amounts of magma rose from the mantle to the surface, causing "lava oceans" along the surface.
Features to look for to identify Venus?
Bright orange or red surface, lava oceans, a pinkish, tan, atmosphere, few craters due to an atmosphere, about 38,000 km in circumference. There are two continents on the planet, made of rough, patchy soil. A large belt of lava surrounding the planet.
Surface feature of Mars?
Grainy, rocky surface whittled away into most pebbles and boulders. Large dust storms cover the planet. Lots of craters and mountains, including both the tallest mountain, Olympus Mons, and the deepest canyon, the Maris Vallerinis, in the entire solar system. It also has polar caps.
Interior of Mars?
Mars has a core relatively larger than Earths- about 1/2 of its total radius. It is metallic, like all the planets. Mars' mantle is made of rocky peridotite, a rock made of silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium. Not much is known about it.
Features to look for to identify Mars?
A red surface, covered in dust and small rocks, like a giant, rocky plain. Extremely large mountains and canyons fill the landscape, along with a few craters. Two polar ice caps and large, dark waves across the planet.
Surface Features of the Moon?
Relatively large, very reflective and a lightish grey color. Covered in craters, but aside from that relatively smooth. The craters also seem to bulge out of the surface, making it seem like parts of the surface were pushed out like putty. The dividing line between day and night on the moon is called the "Terminator"
Internal Features of the Moon?
The Moon consists of a small core, about 400 km in radius, surrounded by a mantle and a "moonquake zone" in which moonquakes, the lunar counterpart of an earthquake, are caused. The core is metallic, and the mantle contains more iron, and is made of olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene.
What is the Moon's mantle made of?
Olivine, Orthopyroxene, and Clinopyroxene.
Features to look for to identify the Moon?
A round and light gray surface, with craters that are surrounded by a pushed up surface, a mantle made of Olivine, Orthopyroxene, and Clinopyroxene. A crust that varies wildly in size. Few mounds, mountains, and canyons. The moon is an example of tidal locking: where its orbital period around earth matches the time it takes for the planet to rotate.
Surface Features of Phobos?
Covered in large amounts of dust that cannot retain heat, covered in craters extremely large relative to its size, and round for an asteroid. Lots of large hills and bumps, and a darkish gray surface. Parts of it seem to have long streak lines running across it. Its largest crater is Stickney.
Features to look for to identify Phobos?
Surface features relatively large to the moons size (mounds or craters a tenth of the diameter of the asteroid), an extremely large crater (Stickney) an interior with no differing layers (indicating it is an asteroid), and a shape extremely bumpy for a planet but round for a large asteroid. A dark grey surface, and part of the planet having dark grey streaks running through the surface.
Surface Features of Deimos?
Deimos is about a seventh the size of Phobos. It is less round, shaped almost like a potato, and is very smooth. It has a few large, deep craters, and varies in color. Its gravity is so weak than any craters blow off lots of material that isn't caught by its gravitational pull.
Features to look for to identify Deimos?
Shaped almost like a potato, varying from a greyish white to a dirty orange. Its extremely smooth, and the craters are very large relative to its total size.
Surface features of Io?
Io is covered with sulfur and iron, giving its surface a mixture of grey, red, orange and yellow colors. It has several volcanoes on its surface. It has sulfuric snow on its surface where it is extremely cold. The gravitation pull of Jupiter and the other Galilean moons create cracks and mountains on the planet. There are also lakes and rivers of sulfuric acid.
Internal features of Io?
Io is made of an Iron and an Iron sulfide core, surrounded by an ultramafic (filled with lots of heavy metals) mantle, and a thin, mostly sulfur or silicate crust and asthenosphere.
Features to identify Io?
Io can be identified by its multicolor surface, and exotic features (large volcanoes, lakes and rivers of sulfuric acid, cracked surface). Its mantle is filled with heavy metals, and its core is relatively small.
Number of Asteroids in the Asteroid Belt?
1.1 to 1.9 million.
Number of Near Earth Asteroids?
10,000
Composition of Asteroids?
Mostly carbonaceous or made of silicates, though some are made of heavy metals.
Features to identify Asteroids?
Grey and rocky, very large, possibly lumpy and oddly shaped, and its featuers are very large relative to its total size.
Mercury Land Formations
Hollows - strange bumps made as lighter elements are blown away leaving only the denser material in strange shapes.

The Caloris Basin - Caloris Planitia, An extremely large basin containing several of the largest craters in the solar system. It is surrounded by a ring of mountains.

The Mercury Spider - Pantheon Fossea, a large web of ridges and trenches surrounding a crater in the center of the Caloris Basin. How it formed is unknown.

The Rachmaninoff Basin - A double ringed basin on Mercury that, at its lowest, is more than 5 km below average elevation.

Plains of Mercury - Intercrater plains were either formed by lava or magma that changed in elevation, or were caused by large amounts of asteroid impacts in certain areas. Smooth plains were formed billions of years ago when Mercury was geologically active, and magma washed over parts of the planet, making them smooth.
Terrestrial planets
A planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Craters and ringed basins
What is/are the most numerous and significant geologic feature(s) on the Moon?
Basalt
What material from partially remelted mantle covers approximately 16% of the moon's surface?
Volcanism on the moon
During the pre-nectarian time on the Moon, what left more traces that we can see now?
The Mariner 10
Which mission in 1974 had mapped about half of Mercury's surface?
Intercrater plains
What is Mercury's oldest surface feature?
Small crater shape and rims, peaks, and terraces formed with increased size.
What are some similarities between Mercury's craters and the Moon's craters?
Ejecta and crater field sizes and diameters.
What are some differences between Mercury's craters and the Moon's craters?
Debris flung out by a meteorite impact
What is ejecta?
Volcanism
How were the smooth plains around Mercury's Caloris Basin supposedly formed?
Its crust formation
What was the earliest decipherable event in the History of Mercury?
The Caloris Basin
What is the largest well-preserved impact crater on Mercury's surface?
The hilly terrain on the other side
How did the Caloris Basin affect the rest of the planet?
The Magellan Mission
Name one mission that had mapped Venus's surface:
Craters and volcanic evidence
What did the Magellan Mission find on Venus's surface?
Lack of tectonic plates
What allowed carbon to build up on Venus?
10% weaker
How strong is Venus's magnetic field compared to Earth's?
Layer of loose deposits on a rocky surface
What is Regolith?
Io
What is this object?
Venus
What is this object?
Mars
What is this object?
Pluto
What is this object?
Europa
What is this object?
Phobos
What is this object?
Deimos
What is this object?
Caloris Basin
What is this (on Mercury)
Olympus Mons
What is this object? (On Mars)
Ganymede
What is this object?
Ceres
What is this object?
Intercrater plains (mercury)
What is this object?
Mars
Where is this?
Ceres
What is the closest dwarf planet to Earth?
on the Moon
Where is the Plato Crater located?
Venus
Where is this?
High impact rates, and was greatly affected by the magnetic field.
Noachian Period on Mars had:
Rarely, and from momentary events (volcanic eruption, meteorite)
When did Mars meet conditions for liquids?
At the end of the Noachian Period, but there is evidence of water remaining.
When did most water on Mars disappear?
Volcanism, canyon development, weathering and erosion levels all decreased greatly.
After Mars's time of flooding, what happened?
The activity of ice.
What was the most distinctive characteristic During Mars's Amazonian period? (after its flooding)
When a satellite captures lighting not coming from the top of the image, causing mountains to look like valleys, and vise versa.
What is relief inversion?
The planets' paths around the sun are elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun at one focus.
What is Kepler's First Law?
An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will move in equal distances in equal intervals of time.
What is Kepler's Second Law?
p^2:d^3, p = planet's orbit periods, d = average distances
What is Kepler's Third Law?
Every planet orbits in an ellipse.
What does Kepler's First Law show?
All planets cover equal distances in equal times, despite being in an ellipse.
What does Kepler's Second Law show?
any planet's p^2:d^3 will be the same, each around 1.
What does Kepler's Third Law show?
Slight occlusion allows us to see more of the Moon than visible to Earth.
What is a libration?
Kepler's laws of planetary motion
The motions of the planets in the solar system. They were derived by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler
Io
The innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter
Phobos
The innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars
Natural satellites
Phobos, Deimos, Io, and Earth's Moon are all....
Valles Marineris
A system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region in Mars. Also called the "Grand Canyon" of Mars
Deimos
The outermost and smaller of the two satellites of Mars
Venus
The second planet from the Sun...nicknamed as "The sister to Earth"
Earth
The third planet from the Sun...A planet that can sustain life...Roman for the Greek Gaia
Hellas Planitia
A plain located within the huge, roughly circular crater located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.
The Moon
The satellite surrounding Earth.
Asteroid Belt
The circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Aitken basin
An impact crater on the far side of the Moon.
Mercury
The first planet from the Sun...Hermes
Olympus Mons
The tallest volcano on Mars...the size of Arizona
Cleopatra
An impact crater on Venus, in Maxwell Montes... a double-ring impact basin about 100 kilometers in diameter and 2.5 kilometers deep.
Moon Dust
A substance usually found on Moon's surface
4 Vesta
One of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of 525 kilometers.
Tides
The rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun
Asteroids
Rocky, airless worlds that orbit our sun, but are too small to be called planets
C-Type Asteroids
Carbonaceous asteroids...they are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids.
Volcanism
The phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
Regolith
A layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock. It includes dust, soil, broken rock, and other related materials and is present on Earth, the Moon, Mars, some asteroids, and other terrestrial planets and moons.
S-Type Asteroids
This type of asteroid includes about 17% of the known asteroids in the solar system. Its surface is composed of nickel-iron with iron-silicates, and magnesium-silicates. The albedo of this type is lighter, at around 0.1 - 0.22.
M-Type Asteroids
(metallic asteroids) are reddish in color ,8% of the solar system,and make up most of the rest of the asteroids, and dwell in the middle region of the main belt. They seem to be made up of nickel and Iron Asteroids range greatly in size from less than 33 feet to the largest asteroid Ceres, with a size of 587 miles
Danilova, Aglaonice and Saskia
A group of three impact craters on Venus, which are widely well known.
Trojan Asteroids
Asteroids sharing an orbit with a planet, but which are located at the leading (L4) and trailing (L5) Lagrangian points
Olympus Mons
Largest known volcano in the solar system, 13.6 miles high.
Maxwell Montes
What feature is 20,000 ft high, the highest point on a planet.
Ishtar Terra
Located on the North Pole of Venus, size of Australia or the U.S.
Aphrodite Terra
Largest of three continent sized highlands, as big as Africa. Located on Venus.
Lada Terra
Major landmass near the south pole of Venus. Diameter of 5,353 miles.
Caloris Planita
Very large impact basin, (960 miles in diameter) one of the largest impact basins in the solar system.
Caloris Montes
A range of mountains around Caloris Planita, system of hills and valleys that extend for 1000 km. They were thought to have been created from the impact of Caloris.
Asteroid
Called minor planets, rocky remnants left over from the formation of the solar system.
99942 Apophis
2.7% chance it will hit Earth in 2029. 1,200 ft in diameter. Found on June 19th, 2004.
2012 TC4
A tiny asteroid of the Apollo group, Approx. 49 ft in diameter. Found Oct. 12th, 2012
4179 Toutatis
Stony asteroid, 2 distinct lobes, A giant basin of 800 meters is on the big end of the asteroid. Small head, big lobe. The asteroid is an orange/red. January 4th, 2008
433 Eros
5,577 km, 1,200 miles in size, resembles a fat banana. It is the 2nd closest asteroid to Earth. It is a heavily surface with one side dominated by a huge, rimmed gouge. and the opposite side by a conspicuous sharp, raised rimmed crater. Feb. 14th
2014 JO25
A peanut shaped contact binary near Earth asteroid. 600-1400 m in diameter. May, 2014
101955 Bennu
A carbonaceous asteroid in the Apollo group. Has a diameter of approx. 492 m, 1614 ft. Sep.11th 1999
367943 Duende
An Aten near asteroid with a diameter of 30 m, 98 ft. passed Earth with a distance of 17,200 miles, a record close approach for an object of that size. Feb. 23rd, 2012.
3122 Florence
A stony asteroid of the Amor group, 5 km in diameter, and a potentially hazardous asteroid. March 2nd, 1981
25143 Itowaka
A stony sub-kilometer asteroid of the Apollo group and a potentially dangerous asteroid. 350 m in diameter. Grey and white, Sep. 26th, 1998
Deimos
One of the 2 satellites that orbit Mars , 6.2 km, 3.9 m radius, takes 30.3 hours to orbit Mars.
Rich in carbonaceous material.
Phobos
A small, irregularly shaped object with a radius of 11km (7m) The moon is the closest of the 2 moons to Mars
Io
The innermost of the 4 Galilean moons of Jupiter. 4th largest moon, has the highest density. Least amount of water of any astronomical object in the Solar System.
The Moon
5th largest moon, only other place other than Earth that humans have set foot.
Ceres, Pallas, Hygeia, Vesta
What are the four largest asteroids in the Asteroid Belt?
Hygeia
What is the fourth largest asteroid in the Solar System?
Deimos
What is this?
Io
What is this?
Phobos
What is this?
composed of rock rich in carbonaceous material
What is the composition of Deimos?
Primarily composed of silicate rock, molten iron and/or iron sulfide and sulfur.
What is the composition of Io?
Sulfur dioxide
What is the composition of Io's atmosphere?
iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, and potassium.
What is the composition of Mars?
low pressure atmosphere (but must have been denser in the past) The atmosphere is made of mostly carbon dioxide (95%) and nitrogen.
What is the composition of Mars's atmosphere?
The composition is high in iron. High amounts of calcium, helium, hydroxide, magnesium, oxygen, potassium, silicon, and sodium.
What is the composition of Mercury?
Mercury has no atmosphere since the planet is so small.
What is the atmosphere of Mercury made of?
carbonaceous chondrite - primarily made up of olivine and pyroxene (minerals made up of Mg, Fe and silicate) The carbonaceous chondrites are composed not only of inorganic minerals but have a high amount of carbon.
What is the composition of Phobos?
iron and nickel
What is the composition of Venus?
mostly carbon dioxide thick clouds of sulfuric acid completely cover the planet atmosphere traps the small amount of energy from the sun that reaches the surface atmosphere also traps the heat of the planet itself
What is the composition of Venus's atmosphere?
Inner part of ring formed a large satellite, gravitational interactions creating _____ and ____. The large satellite, later, crashed into Mars, but the two satellites stayed in orbit. Tides play a role in the orbital evolution of Mars's satellites.___
How were Deimos and Phobos formed?
moderate
What is the albedo of Type A asteroids?
low
What is the albedo of Type B, C, F, G asteroids?
low
What is the albedo of Type C asteroids?
from very low to very high
What is the albedo of Type E, M, P asteroids?
moderate
What is the albedo of Type Q asteroids?
moderate
What is the albedo of Type S asteroids?
Started with the formation of _____ and core accretion. ___ changes constantly because of the volcanic activity that is occurring.
How was Io formed?
The planet was formed accretion, first by small objects clumping together, and gravity pulling in more objects. Over years ___ has changed. Scientists observe that over time ___ has rusted and dried. Before that, they believe that ___ was a much wetter climate with the possibility of supporting life.
How was Mars formed?
The metallic core of the planet formed first by accretion- like most rocky planets, and then gathered lighter elements around it to form it's crust and mantle. The planet was formed 4.6 billion years ago.
Under the influence of gravity, the planet continues to shrink, melting lots of the planet, materials separating by their density. The heaviest elements sank, forming an iron-rich molten core.
How was Mercury formed?
started out looking the same as Earth, but evolved too quickly then too slowly once upon a time had a significant volume of water on the surface oceans lost in a short geological time scale loss of water caused ___ evolution to slow down and made unable to develop plate tectonics (such as Earth's)
How was Venus formed?
30 hours
What is the revolution of Deimos?
How tides work
The gravitational attraction of the moon makes the ocean bulge in the direction of the moon, another bulge on the opposite side because the Earth is also being pulled toward the moon.
42 hours
What is the revolution of Io?
Johannes Kepler
Who made Kepler's Laws?
Kepler's First Law
All planets move about the Sun in elliptical orbit, have the sun as one focus.
Kepler's Second Law - The Law of Equal Areas
A radius vector (quantity of having direction and magnitude)joining a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal lengths of time.
Kepler's Third Law
The orbital period of a planet is equal to the semi-major axis of it's orbit (radius of orbit)
A day (full rotation) on ___ is 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds. It rotates only 40 minutes slower than Earth does.
What is the full rotation of Mars?
687 Earth Days
What is the revolution of Mars?
59 Earth Days
What is the full rotation of Mercury?
88 Earth Days
What is the revolution of Mercury?
lunar libration
is distinct from the slight changes in the Moon's apparent size viewed from Earth
longitudinal libration
is caused by lagging of the Moon's position relative to Earth due to the Moon's eccentric orbit.
latitudinal libration
is caused by the slight tilt of the moon's orbital axis relative to Earth's, and the variation of the relative tilt angle between the two bodies.
diurnal libration
is caused by the motion of observers along the surface of the Earth as the Earth rotates, meaning observers experience a different view of the moon as they move relative to Earth's cent
Solar Eclipse
moon in the middle
Lunar Eclipse
Earth in the middle
Giant Impact Hypothesis
Theia (a mars sized body) collided with Earth and particles of Earth's crust flew and eventually were bounded together again by gravity to form the moon.
co- formation theory
formed at the same time as earth
Capture Theory
Earth's gravity pulled a passing body (such as what happened to Phobos and Deimos)
Tesserae
tectonically highly deformed landforms on the surface of Venus
Tidal Locking
is how the same side of the moon is always facing the Earth
radar altimetry
used on aircraft, measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath an aircraft ...
Spectroscopy
is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism
Gravity Sensing
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration. Proper acceleration, being the acceleration of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame, is not the same as coordinate acceleration, , being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system.
Cratered, but noticeably smoother than Phobos, partially caused by craters being filled with regolith.
What are the craters like on Deimos?
Too small to be volcanic-ly active
Is Deimos Volcanic-ly Active?
"redder in the smoothest areas and less red near the fresh impact craters"
Deimos Impact Process?
is full of volcanoes, creating many different surface features. It produces many surface changes, painting it in various subtle shades. There are lava lakes and floodplains of liquid rock.
What is the surface of Io like?
is full of volcanoes, creating many different surface features. It produces many surface changes, painting it in various subtle shades. There are lava lakes and floodplains of liquid rock. So, yes.
Is Io volcanic-ly active?
There are no impact craters on this moon because it is so young
Io Impact Process?
Stickney Crater
What is this?
Maat Mons
What is this?
Olympus Mons
Largest Volcano on Mars?
made up of oxidized iron dust and rocks.
What is Mars soil made up of?
well preserved
Mars impact craters are.... ______
One side of ______ has a larger amount of craters than the other side does. Smooth plains on the planet indicate that molten material in the past filled in low areas. Also, wrinkle ridges across the planet suggest that the planet cooled down and shrunk, making the surface lift and squeeze.
What is the surface of Mercury like?
This planet is not active.
Is Mercury volcanic-ly active?
likely because of a meteor bombardment.
Why does Phobos have so much regolith?
There is not enough eternal heat or an atmosphere
Why doesn't Phobos have any volcanoes?
there is no atmosphere
Phobos is cratered heavily because.... ____
Phobos
Which is larger - Phobos or Deimos?
Phobos
Which is closer to Mars - Phobos or Deimos?
Caloris Basin
What is the largest feature on Mercury?
(About) 3.8 billion years ago (by a large meteorite)
When (and how) was the Caloris Basin formed?
The crust contracted on one side, leaving steep cliffs on the other
How were the lobate scarps on Mercury formed?
Volcanic deposits (several km thick)
What are the smooth plains on Mercury made of?
Near the North Pole
Where are the smooth plains located on Mercury?
It lacks an atmosphere (to burn up meteorites), and has no water (which would erode craters over time)
Why is Mercury so heavily cratered?
Mercury's Hollows
Mysterious features at the bottom o the Tyagaraja crater
MESSENGER
What spacecraft observed the ridges and troughs on Mercury?
Craters were filled with volcanic deposits, then the deposits cooled and contracted
How were the ridges and troughs on Mercury formed?
Mercury's geological historical periods
Pre-Tolstojan, Tolstojan, Calorian, Mansurian, and Kuiperian
Pre-Tolstojan
What period was the Sobkou Planitia formed?
Degas and Bronte (craters)
What are the two most prominent features in the Sobkou Planitia?
Heemskerck Rupes
A scarp which borders the Sobkou Planitia
Debris from Caloris Basin's impact flew away and melted (filling in imperfections)
What is one explanation for why the Susei Planitia is so smooth?
Tir Planitia
The largest basin on Mercury
A ridge
What is the Antoniadi Dorsum on Mercury?
A radial set of troughs (in the middle of Caloris Basin on Mercury)
What are the Pantheon Fossae?
Apollodrous
What is the crater in the center of the Pantheon Fossae named?
Lunar maria
What feature on the moon is Borealis Planitia (on Mercury) thought to be similar to?
A large volcanic dome
What's in the center of Odin Planitia?
Alpha Regio
What is the oldest part of Venus?
Rhea Mons and Theia Mons
What two volcanoes are in Beta Regio?
(Unknown geological) forces folded the crust into valleys and hills
How was Alpha Regio formed?
11 km (the tallest place on Venus)
How high is Maxwell Montes?
Venus
What planet is Volcano Sapas Mons located?
Smoother lava flows
What are the darker flows on Volcano Sapas Mons?
2
How many summits does Volcano Sapas Mons have?
Shield volcano
What kind of volcano is Sif Mons?
Shield volcano
What kind of volcano is Maat Mons?
Maat Mons
What's the highest volcano on Venus?
Venus (in the Eistla Regio)
On which planet is Sif Mons located?
300 km
What's the diameter of Sif Mons?
Rift zones (on Venus)
Narrow belts where the surface has been pulled apart
Lose material is sculpted away by winds (which are sometimes caused by meteorites)
How are the dunes on Venus formed?
The purpose of coronae (on Venus)
To release inner heat, because Venus doesn't have plate tectonics like Earth
Lava flows (Venus)
Side effects of coronae
Olympus Mons
What is the tallest mountain in the Solar System?
Karzoche and Pang
What are the names of the two craters on Olympus Mons?
Frozen water and carbon dioxide
What is the ice on the polar ice caps of Mars made of?
Phobos
What moon is Stickney on?
10 km
What's the diameter of Stickney?
V-type
What type of asteroid is Vesta?
S-type
What other classification are V-Type asteroids similar to?
Vesta
What is the brightest asteroid visible from Earth?
525 km
What's Vesta's diameter
The second-largest asteroid in the Solar System
Vesta
In the asteroid belt
Where is Vesta located?
It's so big, it's gravity rounded it out
Why is Ceres round?
Water vapor
What is Ceres' atmosphere composed of?
Thin dusty crust, ice mantle, rocky core
What's the inner structure of Ceres?
The asteroid belt
Where is Ceres located?
The four biggest objects in the asteroid belt (biggest to smallest)
Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygeia
The most common method of classification for asteroids
The Tholen Method
C-group, S-type, and X-group
What are the three main Tholen classifications?
B-type, F-type, G-type, C-type
What type of asteroids are classified under C-group?
M-type, E-type, P-type
What type of asteroids are classified under X-group?
A-type, D-type, T-type, Q-type
What are the other asteroid types that aren't under any groupings?
Geminids and Quadrantids
What are the only two meteor showers parented by asteroids?
D-type (although some are P- or C-type)
What type of asteroids are the common Trojan asteroids?
Trojan Asteroids
Asteroids that share an orbit with a planet
Jupiter
Which planet do the common Trojan asteroids share an orbit with?
4,800
About how many common asteroids are there?
Olivine
What are the Mars Trojan Asteroids mostly composed of?
8
How many Mars Trojan Asteroids are there?
Between Jupiter and Neptune
Where are Centaurs found?
44,000
About how many centaurs are there?
Centaurs
Small objects in the Solar System with unstable orbits similar to asteroids or comets
15 Eunomia
The largest of the S-type asteroids
C-type
What's the classification of 511 Davida?
704 Interamnia
The largest of the F-type classification
After a giant impact between Earth, and Theia, leftover debris coalesced in orbit
How did the moon form?
Io
What's the most geologically active object in the Solar System?
Volcanic activity and a strong gravitational pull from Jupiter (and Europe, Ganymede, and Callisto)
What causes Io's lava flows?
Silicate rock and iron
What is Io composed primarily of?

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