Who first published extensive observations of micro-organisms?
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following does not kill endospores?
In bacterial cells, ribosomes are packed into the cytoplasmic matrix and also loosely attached to the plasma membrane. What is the function of the ribosome?
Site of protein synthesis
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for a cell to degrade its own cytosolic proteins
Phagocytosis and secondary lysosome fusion
Holes produced in bacterial "lawns" by viruses are called
Which is not true of the name Escherichia coli?
coli is the strain to which it belongs
The general order of classification below the domain or kingdom level is
Phyla, Class, order, family, genus, species
Which of the following influence the efficiency of an antimicrobial angent?
Concentration of the agent, duration of exposure, temperature
Viruses are subgrouped according to
Nucleic acid type (DNA or RNA), Nucleic acid strandedness (single or double), presence or absence of an envelope
The term used to describe bacteria that have a spherical shape is
The concept that human and animal diseases are caused by microorganisms is called the
Which of the following is an example of the use of binomial nomencature
The nucleic acids carried by viruses usually consist of
Either DNA or RNA
A filamentous organele comprised of tubulins with a diameter of 25nm is called
Gram staining divides bacterial species into roughly two equal groups
Rigid bacteria with a helical shape is called
The second edition of Bergeys manual classifies bacteria
Mole percent (G+C) of DNA is useful for determining relatedness at the _______ level
The term used to describe bacteria that are rod shaped is
A bacteriophage that can integrate its genome into the host chromosome and not cause lysis of the host cell is said to be
Viral capsids are generally constructed without any outside aid once the subunits have been synthesized. This process is called
Which of the following is most effectice against resistant endospores
The two major types of symmetry found in viruses are
Icosahedral and helical
The gram staining procedure is an example of
Entry of a virus into the lytic cycle after lysogeny has been established is called
the binomial system of nomenclature assigns each organism a scientific name consisting of
genus and species
Gram positive bacteria cells retain the primary stain whereas gram negative cells do not because
the alcohol reduces the ability of the outer membrane to help trap the stain in gram negative bacteria and the alcohol shrinks the pores of the thick peptidoglycan layer of gram positive cells thereby trapping the stain
cells of most archaea and bacteria contain peptidoglycan
the term used to describe bacteria that are shaped like curved rods is
in which of the following stages of the viral infectious cycle do enveloped viruses usually acquire their envelopes?
gram positive bacteria have a thinner layer of peptidoglycan than gram negative
the reduction of the microbial population to levels that are considered safe by public health standards is called
A feature unique to some archaeal plasma membranes is that they may
consist of a lipid monolayer
Antiseptic surgery was pioneered by
Who of the following provided the evidence needed to discredit the concept of spontaneous generation?
The concept that living organisms arise from nonliving material is called
The protein coat surrounding the viral genome is called the
Bacterial cells that are variable in shape are called
All prokaryotic organisms are currently classified in the
The destruction or removal of all viable organisms is called
The function of the viral protein coat is to
protect the viral genetic material and aid in the transfer of the viral genetic material between host cells
Chemotaxis is a process by which bacteria
move toward and attractant and away from a repellent
Which of the following is true about bergeys manual?
the first edition is mostly phenetic while the second edition is more phyletic
antiseptics are generally regulated by the
food and drug administration
The term used to describe bacteria that are borderline between spherical and rod shaped is
Some complex viruses have icosahedral symmetry in the head region and helical symmetry in the tail. Overall, these viruses are said to have
Pasteurization is used to
kill any pathogens present and retard spoilage
cells with a relatively simple cell morphology that do not have a true membrane-delimited nucleus is called
ultraviolet radiation is an effective means or sterilizing surfaces
an agent that specifically kills fungi but not other kinds of microorganisms is also known as a
the cell membrane is a rigid structure that provides bacteria with their characteristic shape
In the most widely accepted non-domain classification scheme, organisms are classified into
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