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Who first published extensive observations of micro-organisms?

Anton von Leeuwenhoek

Which of the following does not kill endospores?


In bacterial cells, ribosomes are packed into the cytoplasmic matrix and also loosely attached to the plasma membrane. What is the function of the ribosome?

Site of protein synthesis

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for a cell to degrade its own cytosolic proteins

Phagocytosis and secondary lysosome fusion

Holes produced in bacterial "lawns" by viruses are called


Which is not true of the name Escherichia coli?

coli is the strain to which it belongs

The general order of classification below the domain or kingdom level is

Phyla, Class, order, family, genus, species

Which of the following influence the efficiency of an antimicrobial angent?

Concentration of the agent, duration of exposure, temperature

Viruses are subgrouped according to

Nucleic acid type (DNA or RNA), Nucleic acid strandedness (single or double), presence or absence of an envelope

The term used to describe bacteria that have a spherical shape is


The concept that human and animal diseases are caused by microorganisms is called the

germ theory

Which of the following is an example of the use of binomial nomencature

Escherichia coli

The nucleic acids carried by viruses usually consist of

Either DNA or RNA

A filamentous organele comprised of tubulins with a diameter of 25nm is called


Gram staining divides bacterial species into roughly two equal groups


Rigid bacteria with a helical shape is called


The second edition of Bergeys manual classifies bacteria


Mole percent (G+C) of DNA is useful for determining relatedness at the _______ level


The term used to describe bacteria that are rod shaped is


A bacteriophage that can integrate its genome into the host chromosome and not cause lysis of the host cell is said to be


Viral capsids are generally constructed without any outside aid once the subunits have been synthesized. This process is called


Which of the following is most effectice against resistant endospores


The two major types of symmetry found in viruses are

Icosahedral and helical

The gram staining procedure is an example of

differential staining

Entry of a virus into the lytic cycle after lysogeny has been established is called


the binomial system of nomenclature assigns each organism a scientific name consisting of

genus and species

Gram positive bacteria cells retain the primary stain whereas gram negative cells do not because

the alcohol reduces the ability of the outer membrane to help trap the stain in gram negative bacteria and the alcohol shrinks the pores of the thick peptidoglycan layer of gram positive cells thereby trapping the stain

cells of most archaea and bacteria contain peptidoglycan


the term used to describe bacteria that are shaped like curved rods is


in which of the following stages of the viral infectious cycle do enveloped viruses usually acquire their envelopes?


gram positive bacteria have a thinner layer of peptidoglycan than gram negative


the reduction of the microbial population to levels that are considered safe by public health standards is called


A feature unique to some archaeal plasma membranes is that they may

consist of a lipid monolayer

Antiseptic surgery was pioneered by


Who of the following provided the evidence needed to discredit the concept of spontaneous generation?


The concept that living organisms arise from nonliving material is called

spontaneous generation

The protein coat surrounding the viral genome is called the


Bacterial cells that are variable in shape are called


All prokaryotic organisms are currently classified in the

monera kingdon

The destruction or removal of all viable organisms is called


The function of the viral protein coat is to

protect the viral genetic material and aid in the transfer of the viral genetic material between host cells

Chemotaxis is a process by which bacteria

move toward and attractant and away from a repellent

Which of the following is true about bergeys manual?

the first edition is mostly phenetic while the second edition is more phyletic

antiseptics are generally regulated by the

food and drug administration

The term used to describe bacteria that are borderline between spherical and rod shaped is


Some complex viruses have icosahedral symmetry in the head region and helical symmetry in the tail. Overall, these viruses are said to have

binal symmetry

Pasteurization is used to

kill any pathogens present and retard spoilage

cells with a relatively simple cell morphology that do not have a true membrane-delimited nucleus is called


ultraviolet radiation is an effective means or sterilizing surfaces


an agent that specifically kills fungi but not other kinds of microorganisms is also known as a

fungicidal agent

the cell membrane is a rigid structure that provides bacteria with their characteristic shape


In the most widely accepted non-domain classification scheme, organisms are classified into

five kingdoms

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