How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

84 terms

Microbiology Chapter 12

STUDY
PLAY
What 3 characteristics define protozoa?
eukaryotic, unicellular, lack a cell wall
Protozoa are critical members of the ______ which are free-living, drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains.
plankton
Some ________ have 2 nuclei: maronuclei and micronuclei.
ciliates
Which nucleus controls metabolism?
macronucleus
Which nucleus controls genetic recombination?
micronucleus
Which nucleus controls sexual reproduction?
macro and micronuclei
Which nucleus controls growth?
macronucleus
All free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist as a motile feeding stage called a __________.
trophozoite
Many protozoa have a hardy resting stage called a _________.
cyst
What is a cyst characterized by?
thick capsule and low metabolic rate
Most protozoa are ______otrophic.
Chemoheter
Most protozoa reproduce asexually only, by ________ or ________.
binary fission or schizogony
Gametes fuse with one another to form a diploid _________.
zygote
Paramecium reproduce sexually via complex process called _________.
conjugation
Parabasalids (do, do not) have mitochondria.
do not
________ is a parabasalid that has numerous flagella, inhabits the guts of termites, where it assists in the digestion of wood.
Trichonympha
_________ is a parabasalid that proliferates and causes severe inflammation that can lead to sterility when the normally acidic pH of the vagina is raised.
Trichomonas
What 3 groups are alveolates divided into?
ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates
________ is a ciliate that has apical cilia which create a whirlpool-like current to direct food into its mouth.
Vorticella
_________ is a ciliate that is the only ciliate pathogenic to humans.
Balantidium
________ is a ciliate that phagocytizes other protozoa.
Didinum
Plasmodium is an apicomplexan that causes __________.
malaria
________ is an apicomplexan that causes cryptosporidiosis.
Cryptosporidium
_________ is an apicomplexan that causes toxoplasmosis.
Toxoplasma
Which group of alveolates are bioluminescent?
dinoflagellates
Which of the 3 groups of alveolates contain red pigment that cause the phenomenon called red tide?
dinoflagellates
_______ and ________ are dinoflagellates that produce neurotoxins.
Gymnodium and Gonyaulax
Which dinoflagellate causes memory loss, confusion, headaches, respiratory difficulties, skin rash, muscle cramps and nausea? Such poisoning is called what?
Pfiesteria, (PEAS- possible estuary-associated syndrome)
What are the 3 groups that scientists classify amoebae in?
Cercozo, radiolaria, amoebozoa
Which two groups of amoebae have threadlike pseudopodia?
Cercozoa and Radiolaria
A major taxon of cercozoa is ___________. They have a porous shell composed of calcium carbonate.
foraminifera
Which group of amoebae have ornate shells composed of silica and reinforce their pseudopodia with stiff internal bundles of microtubules?
Radiolaria
Which group of amoebae are distinguished from the other 2 by having lobe-shaped pseudopodia and no shells?
Amoebozoa
_________ and _________ can cause diseases of the eyes or brains of humans and animals that swim in water containing them.
Naegleria and Acanthamoeba
Naegleria and Acanthamoeba are types of amoebae that belong to which group?
Amoebozoa
________ are in the group amoebozoa and always live inside animals where they produce potentially fatal amebic dysentery.
Entamoeba
What are the two types of slime molds?
Plasmodial slime molds and cellular slime molds
What are 2 main ways that slime molds differ from fungi?
they lack cell walls and they are phagocytic rather than absorptive in their nutrition
Which type of slime mold exists as streaming, coenocytic, colorful filaments of cytoplasm that creep as amoebae through forest litter, feeding by phagocytizing organic debris and bacteria?
plasmodial (acellular) slime molds
Which type of slime mold exists as individual hploid myxamoebae that phagocytize bacteria, yeasts, dung, and decaying vegetation?
cellular slime molds
Which type of slime mold produces spores as a result of meiosis?
Plasmodial slime molds
Which type of slime mold produces spores but they are not enclosed in a common wall and they are not the result of meiosis?
cellular slime molds
The Euglenozoa include __________ and ___________.
Euglenids and kinetoplastids
Euglenozoa (do, do not) have mitochondria.
do
Euglenids are ________trophic.
Photoauto
Euglenids store food as a unique polysaccharide caleld _________ instead of starch.
paramylon
Euglenids move by using their flagella as well as by flowing, contracting, and expanding their cytoplasm. This is called ______________.
Euglenoid movement
Each euglenid has a __________ that plays a role in positive phototaxis by casting a shadow on a photoreceptor at the flagellar base, triggering movement in that direction.
red eyespot
Euglenids reproduce how?
mitosis followed by cytokinesis
Eugelnids form ______ when exposed to harsh conditions.
cysts
Kinetoplastids have a single large mitochondrion that contains a unique region of a mitochondrial DNA called a __________.
kinetoplast
Diplomonadida (do, do not) have mitochondria.
do not
Diplomonadida have __________ in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial genes in the nuclear chromosomes.
mitosomes
What are the seven groups of protozoa?
Parabasala, Alveolata, Cercozoa, Radiolaria, Amoebozoa, Euglenozoa, and Diplomonadida
Fungi include _______, ________, and ____________.
yeasts, molds, mushrooms
How do fungi differ from protozoa?
they have cell walls
What are the cell walls of fungi made up of?
chitin
How do fungi differ from plants?
They lack chlorophyll and do not perform photosynthesis
Fungi are ______trophic.
chemohetero
Mycology is the study of ________.
fungi
The vegetative (nonreproductive) body of a fungus is called its ________.
thallus
thalli of __________ are large
molds
thalli of ________ are small.
yeasts
Thalli of ________ are composed of filaments called hyphae.
molds
Hyphae are either ________ or ________.
septate or aseptate
________ hyphae are multinucleate.
Aseptate
Fungi that produce 2 types of thalli are said to be ________.
dimorphic
What are 2 examples of dimorphic fungi?
Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioids immitis
hyphae intertwined to form a tangled mass is called what?
myecelium
The genus _________ contains the largest known organisms on Earth.
Armillaria
Most fungi are _______ —they absorb nutrients from the remnants of dead organisms
saprobes
Fungi that derive their nutrients from living plants and animals usually have modified hyphae called __________ which penetrate the tissue of the host to withdraw nutrients.
haustoria
In sexual spore formation of fungi, Haploid (n) cells from a + thallus and a - thallus fuse to form ________.
dikaryon
What are the four major subgroups of fungi?
zygomycota, ascomycota, basidiomycota, and deuteromycetes
How do organisms in zygomycota reproduce?
asexually via sporangiospores
________ is a division of Zygomycota and the organisms within it are obligatory intracellular parasites that spread from host to host as small, resistant spores.
Microsporidia
Ascomycota is characterized by the formation of haploid __________ within sacs called _______.
ascospores, asci
How do ascomycota organisms reproduce?
conidiospores
Most of the fungi that spoil food are __________.
Ascomycetes
Mushrooms and other fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes are called _______.
basidiocarps
Cryptococcus neoformans comes from the division ________ of fungi and is the leading cause of ____________.
Basidiomycota, fungal meningitis
Which division of fungi has sexual stages that are unknown?
Deuteromycetes
Partnerships between fungi and photosynthetic microbes—commonly, cyanobacteria, or less frequently, green algae
Lichens
3 basic shapes of lichens
Fruticose, Crustose, and Foliose