The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Tsar Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists.
intellectuals; members of the educated elite (often used derogatorily)
conservative Russians who refused reforms of Alexis Romanov
Bloodiest battle fought in the Napoleonic era. It cost the French 30,000 soldiers and the Russians twice that many - but the Russian army was not destroyed and Napoleon gained little from the battle.
Mountainous region between Black Sea and Caspian Sea.
Who was the Minister of Education that created the doctrine of Official Nationality in 1833.
The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. The plot failed, but the ideals remained.
Members of Russian leadership who said that Russia needs to become more like Europe if it's to survive.
1801 emperor of Russia, defeated Napoleon, forms Holy Alliance, death leads to succession debate
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Russian Romantic, wrote the Bridegroom
Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.
Faced trouble Immediately from revolutionaries during the Decembrist Revolt, attempted to acquire outlet to the Meditteranean Sea by Turkey, and caused the Crimean War because of the invade, and lost
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize.
Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant values and institutions of the Slavic people.
1864, lead the populist movement that believed that peasants should initiate the reform, peasants not enthusiastic enough to initiate the revolts though. Wrote The Bell.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
one who rejects all religious, moral, and traditional values, practices, and institutions
1863 Polish Revolts
Russian novelist - examines individual lives to show social/political issues (ex. Fathers and Sons, 1862)
Emancipation of the Serfs; Institution of zemstvos; expansion of education; judicial statute of 1864; Universal Military Training Act of 1874; censorship relaxation
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution
The Great Fatherland War
The term adopted in the Soviet Union to describe the ferocious struggle that began with the German invasion of the USSR in 1941 and concluded with Soviet forces smashing their way into Germany in 1945
A local council of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Alexander III (1881-1894)
Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia.
in Russia; the chief advisor to Nicholas II; makes important agrarian reforms that dissolved the village ownership of land and opened the door to private ownership by enterprising peasants
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924).
The process seen in the Soviet Union to form communal work units for agriculture and manufacturing--from private hands to large, collective, government operations.
Russian version of Nationalism. Unity of the Slavs. Slavs live in Balkans and in Russia
a Russian terrorist organization, best known for the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. It created a centralized, well disguised, and most significant organization in a time of diverse liberation movements in Russia.
the total rejection of religious or moral beliefs
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
A region that includes the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
created by sergei witte and pushed for the industrialization of russia. the witte system set up ways to stimulate the economic development of russia. the construction of railroads was imperative for the success of the witte system
Russian novelist who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight (1821-1881)
Russia's largest port city on the pacific ocean, on the head of the Golden Horn Bay, close to the border with China and North Korea.
wrote Anna Karenina, War and Peace; Russian writer, realistic fiction
They strongly objected to an armed takeover but they were not listened to and Lenin later banned it; populists, largest radical group. Believed the peasants would one day overthrow the tsar and only revolution could bring reform.
(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.
1905; peaceful march by russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds
(1905), issued by Nich. II, attempted to quiet strikes, local revolts, promised freedom of speech and assembly, called the Duma into session
The lower house of the Russian parliament. It proposes legislation, excercises oversight on the bureaucracy. 7% threshold for proportional representation.
Union of Russian People
the most influential conservative group, formed in order to mobilize pro-tsarist sentiment.
The massacre of Armenians conducted by Turkey during WWI
Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
Temporary government led by Alexander Kerensky
the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with
Bolsheviks send this out to the army, tells them not to follow their officers and instead follow orders of Petrograd Soviet
Lenin's promise to the Russian people and challenge to the Provisional Government to provide peace, land, and bread
Russian revolutionary who was head of state after Nicholas II abdicated but was overthrown by the Bolsheviks (1881-1970)