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soc exam 2
Terms in this set (64)
things beyond our control, that exert a force on our lives, enabling and constraining out actions in the world (because you live in Indiana, scholarship, family pressure, expectation)
the actions of individuals and groups in society and the choices we make (you applied and you picked)
the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence
poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority of any given society
an official government measure to define those living in poverty in the US.
for a family of four in 2013
structured inequality between groups in society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards. this can also be based on economics, gender, race, religion, age.
feminization of poverty
the idea that as social trends have changed, the female heads of households are at the highest risks of living in poverty.
theories of poverty
-Focus on Individual (culture-of-poverty arguments)
-Focus on Structure (social exclusion, structural arguments)
focus on individual
blame the individual. coming from or arriving from a cultural values system. people coming from poverty pass down values to kids which leads them to living in poverty as well.
focus of structure
blame the structure. the system that is in place and the individuals not having access to the same things. aka school systems.
inequality becomes internalized
understanding racial and ethnic disparities in health
Focuses on sociological contributions to understanding racial and ethnic disparities in health
1) challenge biological understandings of race
2) Focus social structure and context
3) Point out multiple ways in which racism affects health
4) Examine migration history and status
claims higher rates of poor health among blacks is an important indicator of racial inequality
makes biological claim to explain differences
The way various social categories [eg race, class, gender, religion, sexual orientation] intersect to shape individual experiences
systems of stratification
slavery, caste, class
based on people being divided into owners and slaves
born into your system and marry within the same system so there is no wiggle room
wealthy, middle, poor. SES money helps determine your position in society
refers to an externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification. AND a group of people who share a set of characteristics and are said to share a common bloodline
the process of imposing a racial system on a society. the inequalities shape the lives in the radicalized society today.
means of production
means of production
who has access to things.
division of class- working class, people who control workers
specialty skills- believed that you can be better at specific ideas within your field
royal family- plastics
the things they do, events they attend, how they act are all according to their status
theories of stratification
karl marx and max weber
davis and moore
argues that stratification (division of classes) serves a function in society.
The reason is because in society you have certain people who have specific skills that are highly valued.
• Say when you have these people with specialized skills they will be paid more, and there will be a limited number because everyone can have that job because others need to do other jobs
• Rewards for jobs pay out
• Functionalist way of thinking
society in which advancement is based on personal skills.
no family connections, wealth doesn't matter
PURELY BASED ON SKILL
goes back to the history of the European colonization of much of the world.
The colonizers had strongly ethnocentric attitudes of _______
No true biological races exist; rather, human groups must be placed on a continuum.
a form of prejudice focusing on physical variations between people
holding ideas about a person or group to "pre-judge". Ideas are based on "hearsay rather than on direct evidence"
behavior that denies the members of a group resources or rewards available to others
patterns of discrimination based on race that have become structured into existing social institutuions
problems with mertiocracy
even if you have the skills, but you ignore things like resources (ability to go to school) you wont be able to get those jobs
advanced industrial society
tear drop, more people in the middle class
social class or socioeconomic status (SES)
• An individual's position in a stratified social order based on wealth, property, power and prestige
wages and salary, money you earn, based off occupation
material possessions, family wealth (property)
based on four measures
• Movement of individuals or groups between different social positions
personal career, change of status in one's personal career (can move up or down)
between generations , grandparents compared to you (up or down)
The ability to engage in and appreciate certain lifestyles, it is acquired, accumulates, and is of value in some situations
makes very little income but because she knows where the cool places are to be, fashionable people and places, she doesn't seem or look 'poor'
Agency: determination in school
Structure: she was forced to take care of her parents because they were drug addicts and couldn't take care of themselves. (parents choices- economic position)
the distinct cultural norms and values of a social group
region and culture
kin or ancestry
sense of shared destiny
-fluid and multiple
-usually based on physical differences
models of ethnic integration
the adoption or blending of minority groups (in particular characteristics) into the dominant culture
The idea that ethnic groups can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources.
The presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society
ethnic groups exist separately yet share equally in economic and political life
the systematic planned destruction of a racial, political or cultural group (WWII)
the legal or social practice of physically separating people on the basis of race or ethnicity
Term first used in the 1960s in articles that praised Japanese and Chinese Americans for their persistence in overcoming extreme hardships and discrimination to achieve success
refers to the advantages that white individuals experience or benefit from (due to their racial classification)
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