PHIL-101, Ethics. HW 2 Study Guide
Santa Barbara SBCC, CA. Intro to Ethics Philosophy
Terms in this set (6)
Explain the definition of Ethical Relativism given in the text
To say that ethical values or beliefs are relative to individuals that hold them means that they are just the values and beliefs that these individuals do in fact hold, and to say that they are relative to various societies means that these are in fact the values and beliefs of these societies. It also implies that there is nothing beyond these values by which they can be judged to be better or worse than any other individual or societal values.
What is the difference between individual and social or cultural relativism?
Individual ethical relativism holds that all there is different individuals with their individually formed and held ethical beliefs. Social or cultural ethical relativism stresses the values and beliefs held by various societies, and implies that individuals should conform to these social values.
What is the difference between the theory that people do differ in their moral beliefs and what the theory of ethical relativism holds?
Ethical relativism goes further and states that this is all there is. There is no objective standard even possible in principle by which the moral beliefs of people can be judged or evaluated.
What are the differences among the 3 reasons for supporting ethical relativism?
The difference between the first and the second reason for supporting ethical relativism is that the first appeals to the very fact of diversity to argue that there is no objective good, while the second appeals not to a fact of diversity but to the difficulty that we have knowing what is right. The third adds to the first some possible reason why there might be diversity of moral values, namely, that people's circumstances differ.
How would you know whether a moral disagreement was based on a basic difference in moral values or facts?
You would need to consider the actual reasons that people had for differing about capital punishment. Do they disagree about basic reasons for capital punishment? Or do they have some common values that they want to see furthered, but simply disagree about the best way to further them?
What is moral relativism and how does it differ from scientific realism?
Moral realism is a term or phrase that can be applied to moral philosophies that hold that there is some realm of moral fact. In this it is similar to scientific realism. It differs from scientific realism in that the realm in the latter is nature, whereas moral realists have more difficulty specifying just what the realm of moral fact is.
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