PHIL-101, Ethics. HW 3 Study Guide
Santa Barbara SBCC, CA. Intro to Ethics Philosophy
Terms in this set (8)
Explain the basic differences between psychological egoism and ethical egoism.
Psychological egoism is a theory about how we do behave while ethical egoism is a theory about how we ought to behave.
Give two different formulations or versions of psychological egoism and ethical egoism.
Two versions of psychological egoism are one that which says that we basically do act in our own best interest, and another that says that we at least try to do so but may not always in fact do what is in our own best interest. Two versions of ethical egoism are that which holds that I alone ought to do only what is in my own best interest, and that which holds that everyone ought to do only what is in his or her best interest.
To prove that motivational version of psychological egoism is true what must be shown?
One must show that we are always motivated by the desire to do what is in our best interest.
How is psychological egoism supposed to provide support for an argument for ethical egoism?
This argument for ethical egoism tries to show that because we do seek only our own best interest thus we ought to do so. One problem with this argument is that it is based on the general idea that because we do seek something then we ought to do so, that the very fact that we do behave in a certain way is a good reason to hold that we ought to behave in this way.
Summarize the arguments regarding the consistency of inconsistency of ethical egoism.
The problem with that form of ethical egoism which says that everyone should act only in their own best interest is that it seems to run into contradictions. This is because the person who holds the theory will do what is only in his own best interest, but he also must accept that others will not do what is in his best interest but their own. He seems to be wanting two contradictory things, namely, that they help him and that they do not help him (when it is not in their own best interest to do so).
The argument for ethical egoism based on economic support not egoism but utilitarianism?
It supports utilitarianism if the reason why we ought each to care for others is that this would be in the best interest of the greatest number, rather than in the best interest of the agent of action.
What is meant by taking the "moral point of view"
There are different possible meanings for "taking the moral point of view," but one is that a person will try to consider and do what is morally right regardless if it is in his or her own best interest. Another is that one be impartial and consider things from some possible disinterested perspective rather than from one's own perspective.
How does the example of the "ring of gyges" illustrate the question "why be moral?"
The Ring of Gyges raises the issue of whether we would do the right thing if we could get away with doing the wrong or unjust thing. But further, it asks whether we have any reason to do what is right when it is not in our own best interest to do so.
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