AP Human Geography- Ch. 9 Development SHS
Terms in this set (46)
The process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Country characterized by economies based more on manufacturing and services.
Country characterized by economies that include a good deal of subsistence activities and some manufacturing and services.
Human Development Index
An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, that is based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country, normally during a year.
A portion of the economy where workers extract materials from Earth through agriculture, and sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
A portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
A portion of the economy which involves the sale and exchange of goods and services.
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
Foreign Direct Investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Structural Adjustment Program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
An alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
Gross National Income
The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country, including money that leaves and enters the country.
Per Capita GDP/GNI
A measurement yielded by dividing the GDP or GNI by the population of a country.
The legal economy that governments tax and monitor
The illegal or uncounted economy that governments do not tax and keep track of
A theory that maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
When the major world powers control the economies of poorer countries, even though poorer countries are now politically independent states
Theory which holds that the political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control and limit the economic development possibilities of poorer areas
Small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries.
The knowledge-based port of the economy that includes research and development, business consulting, financial services, education, public administration, and software development.
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Female Labor Force Participation Rate
The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home.
Gender Inequality Index
A measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality.
A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)
Modification of the HDI to account for inequality withing a country.
Maternal Mortality Rate
The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from globalization of the economy.
Total fertility rate
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Infant mortality rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age for every 1000 live births in a country.
Adolescent fertility rate
Number of births per 1000 women ages 15-19.
Theory proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
Places that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, more technology, and generate more wealth in the world economy.
Places that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, less technology, and generate lower levels of wealth in the world economy.
Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core, but in turn exploit the periphery.
The ability of an individual or group to carry out a particular economic activity more efficiently than another activity.
When both parties have goods or services that the other party desires.
Groups of countries that agree to a common set of trade rules.
Newly industrialized country
Country whose national economy has transformed from being primarily based in agriculture to being primarily based in goods-producing industries during the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Any economic activity that serves the current needs of people without making it harder for people in the future to live well.
Tourism that attempts to protect local ecosystems and to educate visitors about them.
An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Millennium Development Goals
Eight international development goals that all members of the United Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015.
A source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
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