22 terms

AP Human Geography: Agriculture

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agribusiness
System of food production involving everything from the development of the seeds to the marketing and sale of food products at the market.
agriculture
Planting large amounts of profitable crops for mass production
aquaculture
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions
commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
desertification
the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture.
double cropping
growing more than one crop a year on the same land
food desert
An area in a developed country where healthy food is difficult to obtain
GMOs
Foods that\have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistant, increased productivity, or nutrients value
Green Revolution
An outgrowth of the 3rd agricultural revolution, this effort began in the 1940s and developed new strains of hybrid seeds and fertilizers that dramatically increased the crop output possible from each farm.
Intensive Subsistence Farming
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Jacob Von Thunen Model
Theory that a commercial farmer wull decide which crops to grow and which livestock to raise depending on the proximity to market.
milk shed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
Pastoral Nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Second Agricultural Revolution
1700s, tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
seed Agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from fertilization.
shifting cultivation
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
subsistence agriculture
Self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade. (LDC's)
swidden
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
vegetative farming
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
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