COUN - 6215 Chapter 1 Organizing Themes in Development
Terms in this set (78)
ego (p. 9)
In Freud's personality theory, the second of three aspects of personality, which represents the rational, realistic self that seeks to meet bodily needs in sensible ways that take into account all aspects of a situation.
Freud's psychosexual stages (p. 9)
The five developmental stages that Freud believed were initiated by changes in the id and its energy levels.
critical (sensitive) period (p. 10)
A certain time frame in which some developments, such as first language learning, must take place or the opportunity is missed.
anal stage (p. 10)
In Freud's theory, the second of psychosexual stage, beginning in the 2nd year of life, when the anal area of the body becomes the focus of greatest pleasure. During this stage, parenting practices associated with toilet training that are either over controlling or overindulgent could have long-lasting effects on personality development.
Erikson's psychosocial stages (p. 11)
Erik Erikson's eight-stage model of personality that focuses on explaining attitudes and feelings toward the self and others. The first five correspond to the age periods in Freud's psychosexual stages, whereas three adult life stages suggest that personality development continues until death.
autonomy versus shame and doubt (p. 11)
The crisis faced in the second of Erikson's "Eight Stages of Man," in which the 1- to 3-year-old child may develop feelings of autonomy ("I can do things myself") or of shame and self-doubt, depending on whether his caregiver strikes the right balance between exercising control and being sensitive to the child's new need for Independence.
décalages (p. 13)
Within-stage variations in Piaget's cognitive stage theory. Children sometimes show more advanced or less advanced functioning in one or another cognitive domain than is typical of their overall stage of development.
constructivist (p. 13)
An approach to explaining the acquisition of knowledge (e.g., in Piaget's theory). Constructivist theories assume that individuals actively create their own knowledge by interpreting new information in light of prior learning and by restructuring prior knowledge, or by co-constructing knowledge in interactions with others. Individuals are not seen as passive receptors of information who acquire knowledge via external manipulations.
concrete operational stage (p. 13)
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the period from about age 6 to 12 when children begin to think logically but have difficulty applying logical thought to abstract contents.
formal operational stage (p. 13)
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a stage that begins at about 11 or 12 years, when children are able to engage in thinking that (1) rises above particular contents and focuses on relationships that govern those contents (abstractions), (2) involves coordinating multiple relationships, and (3) can be difficult even for adults.
behaviorist tradition (p. 14)
Approaches to explaining learning in which behavioral change is seen as a function of chains of specific environmental events, such as those that occur in classical and operant conditioning.
classical (respondent) conditioning (p. 14)
A process by which a change in behavior takes place when a neutral event or stimulus is associated with a stimulus that causes an automatic response. As a result the neutral stimulus causes the person to make the same automatic response in the future.
conditioned stimulus (p. 15)
A formerly neutral stimulus that has become associated with a stimulus that causes an automatic response, thus causing the same automatic response in the future.
conditioned response (p. 15)
In classical conditioning, when a neutral stimulus has been conditioned to produce an automatic response. For example, if an animal hears a tone (neutral stimulus) every time it eats, it may begin to salivate (conditioned response) automatically when it hears the tone.
bidirectional processes (p. 17)
Reciprocal relationships between causal mechanisms. Factors that result in developmental change often moderate each others' influence. For example, genetic influences are moderated by environmental processes and vice versa.
Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory (p. 19)
A comprehensive developmental model proposed by Bronfenbrenner that takes into account the many levels of influence the environment can have on an individual. The interacting systems in this model are the microsystem, the mesosystem, the ecosystem, and the macrosystem.
distal processes (p. 19)
Factors outside the immediate external environment, including internal forces (genes) and external forces (features of the educational system or of the broader culture), which modify the proximal processes in Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model and other multidimensional theories.
demand characteristics (p. 19)
Behavioral tendencies that often either encourage or discourage certain kinds of reactions from others.
exosystem (p. 19)
In Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, the level of the environment that children may not directly interact with but that influences them nonetheless.
ethnicity (p. 24)
People are considered to share ethnicity when they have a common ancestry, language, and place of origin, as well as a sense of belonging to the same group.
culture (p. 24)
Shared traditions, attitudes, values, and beliefs handed down from one generation to the next.
developmental psychopathology (p. 30)
A relatively new and influential field that has applied a developmental focus to the study of abnormal behavior and dysfunction.
endophenotypes (p. 31)
Biobehavioral processes that are intermediary between the actual genes that contribute to disorders and their expressed behavioral manifestations.
lifespan development (p. 2)
The study of human development from conception to death.
reflective practice (p. 3)
A method used by counselors that emphasizes careful consideration of theoretical and empirical sources of knowledge, as well as one's own beliefs and assumptions, as a precursor to practice.
stage (p. 8)
A period of time, perhaps several years, during which a person's activities (at least in one broad domain) have certain characteristics in common.
psychoanalytic theory (p. 9)
describes the complex functioning of the adult personality and offers an explanation of the processes and progress of its development throughout childhood.
id (p. 9)
In Freud's personality theory, one of three aspects of personality. Represents the biological self and its function are to keep the individual alive. It is irrational, blindly pursuing the fulfillment of physical needs or "instincts," such as the hunger drive and the sex drive.
pleasure principle (p. 9)
The pursuit of gratification, which motivates the id in Freud's personality theory.
reality principle (p. 9)
A focus on understanding the world and behavioral consequences that leads to sensible and self-protective behavior. In Freud's personality theory, the ego operates on this principle.
superego (p. 9)
In Freud's personality theory, the last of three aspects of personality, which serves as an "internalized parent" that causes one to feel guilty if his behavior deviates from parental and societal restrictions.
oral stage (p. 9)
The first of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, corresponding to the 1st year of life, when Freud believed that a disproportionate amount of id energy is invested in drives satisfied through the mouth.
oral fixation (p. 10)
In Freud's personality theory, an excessive need for oral pleasures (such as eating or talking) that results from extreme denial or excessive indulgence of them during the oral stage.
phallic stage (p. 10)
The third of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, lasting from age 3 to about 5, in which id energy is focused primarily in the genital region. This stage draws the greatest parental discipline, leads to feelings of guilt and the development of the superego, and can have long-lasting effects on how a child copes with postpubertal sexual needs.
latency stage (p. 10)
The fourth of Freud's psy-chosexual stages, beginning around age 5, during which the id's energy is not especially linked to any particular pleasure or body part, and the potential conflicts among the three aspects of personality are largely latent and unexpressed.
genital stage (p. 10)
The fifth and last of Freud's psychosexual stages, when the changes of puberty mean that id energy is especially invested in adult sexual impulses.
trust versus mistrust (p. 11)
The crisis faced in the first of Erikson's "Eight Stages of Man," in which the responsiveness of an infant's caregiver will determine whether the baby establishes basic trust and a sense of being valuable.
Piaget's cognitive development theory (p. 12)
Jean Piaget's theory of the development of cognition, which outlines four childhood stages in which the capacity to think logically about both concrete and abstract concepts evolves.
sensorimotor stage (p. 13)
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the period from birth to about age 2 when infants are not yet capable of representational thought, so they are unable to form mental images or to plan their behavior. Babies have sensory experiences, organize them on the basis of inborn reflexes or patterns of motor responses, and make motor responses to them.
hierarchical integration (p. 13)
The organization and integration of activities and skills from one stage of development into broader, more complex patterns at the next stage.
self-organizing (p. 13)
Filtering incoming information through one's own existing mental constructs and influencing the environment's inputs with one's actions and reactions.
preoperational stage (p. 13)
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the time period from approximately age 2 to 7 when children are capable of representational thought but appear to be prelogical in their thinking.
incremental models (p. 14)
Theoretical models in which change is considered steady and specific to particular behaviors or mental activities, rather than being marked by major, sweeping reorganizations that affect many behaviors at once, as in stage theories.
operant conditioning (p. 14)
The process by which a person learns to produce a formerly random behavior (or operant) in response to a cue because the behavior was previously reinforced in that situation.
respondent (p. 14)
An automatic response to a stimulus. For example, a rapidly approach-ing visual stimulus can automatically elicit an eye blink, which is a respondent.
operant (p. 15)
An accidental or random action.
reinforcement (p. 15)
An event that an individual experiences as pleasurable or rewarding, which increases the frequency of a behavior that occurred immediately before the pleasurable event.
positive reinforcement (p. 15)
A rewarding consequence of a behavior in the presence of a cue. Rewarding consequences increase the likelihood of that behavior in the future when the proper cue is provided. For example, if you give a food treat to your dog when she sits on command, the food treat is a positive reinforcement, and she is likely to repeat the sit in the future when she hears the command.
negative reinforcement (p. 15)
Withdrawal of an aversive experience, which serves as a rewarding consequence of a behavior. For example, rewarding your dog for sitting on command by removing a restraining muzzle.
social learning theories (p. 15)
Theories that focus specifically on how children acquire personality characteristics and social skills.
modeling (p. 15)
See observational learning. Learning by imitation. Occurs when an individual repeats an act or sequence of actions that she has observed another indi-vidual (the model) performing.
generalization (p. 15)
The process by which learned behaviors may be extended to new events that are very similar to events in the original learning context.
information processing theories (p. 16)
Theories that tend to liken human cognitive functioning to computer processing of information.
multidimensional (systems) theories (p. 17)
A class of theoretical models in which theorists consider development to be the result of the relationships among many causal components. They generally apply to all domains of development from the cognitive to the social and suggest that there are layers, or levels, of interacting causes for behavioral change: physical/molecular, biological, psychological, social, and cultural. These models may also be called transactional, relational, systems, or bioecological models.
proximal processes (p. 19)
Reciprocal interactions between a person and her immediate external environment, including other people, the physical environment, or informational sources such as books or movies. In Bronfenbrenner's biological model, all developments are a function of these processes.
microsystem (p. 19)
In Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, the immediate environment where proximal processes are played out.
mesosystem (p. 19)
In Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, the network of microsystems that relate with and modify one another.
macrosystem (p. 20)
In Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, the customs and character of the larger culture that help shape the microsystems.
life span developmental theories (p. 20)
A type of multidimensional theory that emphasizes the continuity of developmental processes from birth through death. Developmental change, seen as adaptation, involves proximal interactions between the organism and the immediate context modified by more distal processes both within the individual and in the environment.
epigenetics (p. 22)
See epigenesis. epigenesis: The control of genetic expression by both regulatory DNA and environmental factors.
neuroplasticity (p. 23)
The malleability of the human brain, its capacity to change and grow especially in response to new environmental input. Includes the capacity of neurons to shift functions to compensate for damage to other cells or because they have been transplanted to a different part of the brain.
sociocultural theories (p. 24)
Theories in the tradition of Vygotsky, arguing that important aspects of cognitive development may be qualitatively different in different cultures.
racial group (p. 24)
Groups of people, like Blacks, Whites, and Asians, who have historically been assumed to be genetically different, identifiable by variations in hair, skin color, bone structure, or other physiological markers. Genetic indicators of race have not been found, so that racial groups appear to be a social construction.
socioeconomic status (SES) (p. 25)
Social standing or power characterizing adults in a household. Characteristics defining SES include educational background, income, and occupational type.
protective factors (p. 30)
Aspects of the organism or the environment that moderate the negative effects of risk.
risk factors (p. 30)
Aspects of the organism or the environment that compromise healthy development.
mediating variables (p. 31)
Intermediate links in a causal chain. For example, if early poverty causes reading problems in school, and reading problems cause later depression, then reading problems serve as a mediating variable.
moderating variables (p. 31)
Causal factors that interact with other causal variables, altering and sometimes even eliminating the effects of other variables altogether.
principle of multifinality (p. 31)
The same developmental pathways may result in a wide range of possible outcomes.
principle of equifinality (p. 31)
Many early developmental pathways can produce similar outcomes.
prevention science (p. 32)
A new and evolving multidisciplinary mix of human development, psychopathology, epidemiology, education, and criminology that offers us useful guidelines for understanding what constitutes effective prevention.
primary prevention (p. 33)
An attempt to forestall the development of problems by promoting health and wellness in the general population through group-oriented interventions.
secondary prevention (p. 33)
An attempt to reduce the incidence of disorders among those who are at high risk or to provide treatment to forestall the development of more serious psychopathology in cases that are already established.
tertiary prevention (p. 33)
An attempt to rehabilitate persons with established disorders; similar to treatment.
universal prevention (p. 33)
A category of prevention efforts that are directed to the general population.
selective prevention (p. 33)
A category of prevention efforts that target individuals at some epidemiological risk.
indicated prevention (p. 33)
A category of prevention efforts that address individuals who show subclinical symptoms of disorders.
resilience (p. 34)
The quality that permits developmental success for some individuals despite grave setbacks, early adversity, or other risk factors. (Describes a person who has this quality.)
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