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BIOS 357 EXAM 2
Terms in this set (87)
what are the 3 main bone cell types and how do each differ in function
-Produce new bone
-Mature bone cells in lacuna, maintain matrix
-Activated by PTH
-Bone-destroying cells to resorb or breakdown bone matrix, produce H+ and enzymes
-Release calcium ions into blood
know the functions of the skeletal system
Protection, Storage, Movement, Support, Hematopoiesis (blood cell formation)
what type of tissue is bone; what is the matrix made of
Alive dynamic tissue connective tissue; Osteoblasts
-35% organic of collagen fibers
-65% inorganic of calcium
what type of fibers are found in bone
Collagen Fibers; Strong, fibrous protein that functions as extracellular structural element in connective tissue
what gives bone tensile strength; what gives bone compressive strength
organic collagen fibers; hydroxyapetite which is a calcium phosphate crystal
know the histological bone features
lacunae-tiny cavities within bone matrix
osteons- structural unit of compact bone
lamellae- lacunae arranged in concentric circles
canaliculi - tiny canals trasportation system
trabeculae- bony struts
What inorganic material causes bone to ossify (harden)?
hydroxyapetite; Inorganic material that causes bone to ossify
How do nutrients get to the osteocytes in bone if the matrix is too hard to diffuse through?
by using canaliculi stick a little tunnel through matrix; Central canals run lengthwise through the bony matrix, carrying blood vessels and nerves to all areas of the bone
Does bone have a blood supply?
What is the healing capacity for bone, good or poor?
-A bone is reduced then immobilized with a cast or traction to heal
-Can take about 6-8 weeks
What is the difference between spongy and compact bone,
Cancellous, less matrix, more open space
-Dense, more matrix, less space, lamella and osteons
What is the difference between woven/immature and lamellar/mature bone?
-Organized, mature bone
-Collagen fibers are parallel to each other and at angles to other lamella
Where do you find woven bone?
What is hematopoiesis and where does it take place?
Blood cell formation; bone marrow
What are the differences between endochondral and intramembranous bone formation?
Endochondral Bone Formation
-Ossifying hyaline cartilage with bone
-Most bones in body
Intramembranous Bone Formation
-Bone development occurs by replacing membrane with bone
-Cranial bones of skull
.Name an example of a bone which grew from endochondral growth and one from
How does exercise or lack of it effect bone growth?
Can help prevent osteoporosis
What is the role of the thyroid and parathyroid in bone growth?
to control calcium levels
What hormones are involved and what stimulus causes their release?
-Released from thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are high from thyroid gland
-Released by parathyroid gland when the blood calcium levels are low
When thyroid gland is secreted what happens at the bone, kidney, intestine?
-Decrease GI absorption
-Increase kidney excretion
When parathyroid hormone is secreted what happens at the bone, kidney, intestine?
-Increase GI absorption of calcium
-Decrease kidney excretion of calcium
What is the epiphyseal plate? epiphyseal line? What is "bone maturity"?
-Growth plate, the site of growth in length of a long bone
-Plate fuses or ossifies at 18-25 years of age
epiphyseal line -The line of junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone where growth in length occurs.
. Know the parts of a long bone, including the sheaths (covering and lining).
Long - greater in length than width
Classify bones by shape
Long - greater in length than width
• Flat - plate like (skull, sternum)
• Short - width and length about the same
Sesamoid - a type of short bone within a
• Irregular - no real category (vertebrae)
Know what bones belong to the axial skeleton
Know what bones belong to the appendicular skeleton
What can cause a fracture and how do fractures heal?
Forces too great to withstand or demineralized, weak bone
Occurs in steps:
-Remodeling mature bone 1yr
What were some of the types of fractures discussed in class?
study table 5.2
What is a sinus, suture, fontanelle, articulation, joint capsule, synovial fluid?
What is a strain?
Muscle or tendon injury
What is a Sprain?
Ligament or capsule injury
How do male and female pelvic bones differ?
-Shorter true pelvis
-Less than 90 degrees of pubic arch
-Wider true pelvis
-Greater than 90 degrees of pubic arch
Know the number of vertebra found in each region and the general characteristics of each
• 12 Thoracic,
• 5 Lumbar,
• Sacrum (5 fused),
• Coccyx (3 to 5 fused)
What are the 3 joint classifications from non movement to freely movable?
- Immovable joints
- Slightly movable joints
- Freely movable joints
-Multiaxial joint (shoulder joint)
Which joint type is the least stable (most likely to dislocate or be injured)?
diarthroses (synovial joint) due to the fact that it is freely movable
.Know the difference between a tendon and a ligament
Tendons -attach to muscles around joint
Ligaments - attach bone to bone
What are the main components of a synovial joint?
What are the normal and abnormal curves of the spine?
-Cervical curve- lordosis 2'
-Thoracic curve-kyphosis 1'
-Lumbar curve- lordosis 2'
-Sacral curve- kyphosis 1'
Abnormal Spinal Curve
What is a herniated disc? Why is it associated with nerve irritation?
-Part of disc is pushed out to the side
-Associated with nerve irritation due to the fact that the gel is pushed up against the spinal nerve
-Overtime is moved to weak wall and tears fibers causing nerve damage
What can the study of a deceased person's skeleton reveal about them? Ex: age
Review the common skeletal/joint conditions discussed in class.
study power point
List and describe the major functions of skeletal muscle
-Produce skeletal movement
-Maintain body position
-Support soft tissues
-Maintain body temperature (ex. shivering)
-Store nutrient reserves (glycogen)
-Separates muscle from surrounding tissues
-Surrounds muscle fiber bundles (fascicles)
-Contains blood vessel and nerve supply to fascicles
-Surrounds individual muscle cells (muscle fibers)
-Form at the end of tendons to form bundles or aponeurosis sheet
Associated with muscle
-1000s in one muscle fiber
-Bundles of protein microfilaments
-In striated muscle arranged in an alternating structure-appears light and dark w/ microscope
-Structural and functional unit in sarcomere
-Threadlike protein in sarcomeres
-Plasma membrane of skeletal muscle
-Cytoplasm in skeletal muscle
-Specialized ER that stores and releases calcium, surround myofibrils
-Invagination of sarcolemma
-The contractile units of muscle
-Structural units of myofibrils
-Form visible patterns within myofibrils
-Contains actin and myosin
Forms borders of the sarcomere
-Protein for contraction
-Myosin wants to bind here
-Protein for contraction
-Wants to bind with actin
Sliding Filament Theory
-Actin and myosin filaments within the sarcomere connect and slide past each other to produce muscular tension and movement
-Actin and myosin do NOT change length but they overlap more
-The muscle itself 'shortens' or contracts
Calcium ions (Ca++)
Enter in an axon terminal causing synaptic vesicles to release ACh
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
-Association site of axon terminal of the motor neuron and sarcolemma of a muscle
-Forms junctions with the sarcolemma of a different muscle cell
Motor end plate
Where ACh binds to receptors on the muscle fiber plasma membrane
-Gap between nerve and muscle
-Vesicles that store neurotransmitters before traveling over the synaptic cleft
-Chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse in the axon terminal
-The neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle
-The normal tension and firmness of a muscle at rest
-Muscle units actively maintain body position, without motion
-Increases metabolic energy used, even at rest
-Loss of tone
Contraction and relaxation of a muscle fiber
-Twitches reach maximum tension
-If rapid stimulation continues and muscle is not allowed to relax, twitches reach maximum level of tension
-If stimulation frequency is high enough, muscle nerve begins to relax, and is in continuous contraction
-Muscle develops tension but does NOT change length
-Muscle changes length
-One motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells stimulated by that neuron
-Contraction of more fibers results in greater muscle tension
Muscle fiber energy sources
-When muscles can no longer perform a required activity
-Caused by depletion of energy ATP; damage to sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum; low pH; pain
-Lack of muscle activity
-Reduces muscle size, tone, and power
-Fibrous tissue may replace contractile tissue if prolonged
-Muscle growth from heavy training
-Increases diameter of muscle fibers
-Increases number of myofibrils
-Increases mitochondria, glycogen reserves
-Do not add fibers
Inherited muscle destroying disease, muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy, early death
-Shortage of acetylcholine receptors at the motor end plates, could be autoimmune
-Ex. drooping of upper eyelids, difficulty speaking, swallowing, fatigue
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