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# of Aediles


Minimum age of Aediles

5, 5

__ were patricians, __ were plebeians in Aediles

can't be killed, fired, or harmed



Aediles performed religious _______

wheat, water

Aediles ensured _______ and _______ supply

chariot racing, gladiators

Aediles provided _______, _______


# of Quaestors


Minimum age of Quaestors


# of Quaestors that collected for government


2 Quaestors collected for _______


Quaestors collected _______


# of Praetors


Minimum age of Praetors

citizens, Rome

Praetor Urbanus judged _______ and took over _______ if both consuls were away


The other Praetor that is not Urbanus


Jobs in government were held for __ year(s)


People in government could not hold the same job again for __ year(s)


Nobles = _______


Commoners = _______

cursus honorum

Career structure = _______ _______


# of Consuls


Minimum age of Consul


Consuls made _______


In Consuls, _______ by one cancels the other


Consuls were in charge of the _______


# of people in Senate

Aedile onwards

Experience of Senate required


Senate gave _______

influence, power

Senate had a lot of _______ but no actual _______


Senate wore a white toga with a ______ edge


# of Dictators

Ex consul

Experience of Dictator required


Dictators took over during a _______

6, longer

Dictators ruled for __ months or _______ if necessary


Dictators were in charge of _______


# of Tribunes

Ex Aedile

Experience of Tribunes required


Tribunes wore _______ clothes


Tribunes were protected by _______

on the steps outside the Senate

Tribunes met ___________________

1, 9

In Tribunes, veto by __ cancels __


__ Tribunes took over army if neither Consul wanted to


Tribunes got way by making _______ strike


# of blocks in Comitia Centuriata

98, 95

In Comitia Centuriata, __ blocks were Patricians, __ blocks were Plebeians


Minimum age of Comitia Centuriata

war, peace

Comitia Centuriata voted on _______ and _______


Comitia Centuriata voted on _______


Comitia Centuriata _______ officials


Comitia Centuriata collected _______

Aedile and Tribune

All jobs were controlled by Patricians except for 2. One was shared with Plebeians and the other was totally controlled by them. What were these 2 jobs?

So nothing can get done

Why did Rome like jobs with even numbers?


What does Punic mean?

Sardinia and Corsica

Carthage lost Sicily in 241 B.C. after the First Punic War. 3 years later, Rome stole 2 more islands from them. Which 2 were they?

To get silver to pay Rome

After the First Punic war, why did Carthage invade Spain?

surprise attack, Rome had naval blockade

In 218 B.C., the Second Punic War began with Hannibal invading Italy via the Alps. Give 2 reasons why he came through that route.

elephants, 36

Hannibal brought a secret weapon with him. What was it and how many were there during the Second Punic War?


Hannibal set off with 100,000. What % of his army was lost crossing the Alps during the Second Punic War?

Lake Trasimene

Rome lost 50,000 soldiers in 217 B.C. at the battle of _ _ _ _ / _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ during the Second Punic War?


Rome lost 80,000 soldiers in 216 B.C at the battle of _ _ _ _ _ _ during the Second Punic War?

old people, young men, slaves

Which 3 groups were now forced into the army during the Second Punic War? (3)

landless, women

Which 2 groups were refused entry into the army during the Second Punic War? (2)

Fabius Maximus

Who became dictator during the Second Punic War?

burned and salted fields to drive Hannibal south, avoided battle, trained a new army of 200,000 over 2 years

How did Fabius Maximus save Rome during the Second Punic War?(3)

provided supplies to city, stopped allied cities from surrendering

How did the navy save Rome during the Second Punic War? (2)

201 B.C.

The Second Punic War lasted 17 years. When did it end?

Scipio Africanus

Who defeated Hannibal at the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. during the Second Punic War?

elephants, 10 warships only, army, foreign policy

What did Carthage lose? (4)

146 B.C.

The Third Punic War began in 149 B.C. and lasted 3 years until when?


What was the cause of the Third Punic War?

Cato the elder

Who said for 60 years that Carthage must be destroyed?


What showmanship did Cato the elder use to convince the senate to go to war?

Scipio Nasica

Who was the Roman commander during the Third Punic War?

burned it 3 times, salted it, cursed it, buried it

What did Rome do to Carthage in the end? (3 + 1 e.c.)


What office did Tiberius Gracchus hold?

133 B.C.

What year did Tiberius Gracchus hold the office of Tribune?

Lex Agraria

What is the name of Tiberius Gracchus's controversial law?


# of Iugera a landowner could own


# of Iugera Tiberius Gracchus's eldest 2 sons could own each

half acre

What is a Iugera?

fired the tribune, ran for reelection

How did Tiberius Gracchus act illegally? (2)

Senate had no actual power

What did Tiberius Gracchus reveal about the Senate?

Senate's gangs

Who murdered Tiberius Gracchus?

Gaius Gracchus

Who was Tiberius Gracchus's brother?

121 B.C.

When was Tiberius Gracchus's brother killed?

created a committee of 3 tribunes to give land to landless, from Carthage

What did Tiberius Gracchus's brother try to accomplish? (2)

107 B.C.

When was Marius first elected Consul?

he had not gone through the Cursus Honorum

Why should Marius not have been Consul?

had not waited 10 years

Why should Marius not have been Consul?


When was Marius Consul 5 times in a row? 104 B.C. --- ____ B.C.

swore an oath of loyalty to him, paid their wages, promised land for landless to retire on

Which 3 of Marius's army reforms contributed to the fall of the Republic?

Generals now controlled the army, not the Senate.

How did the changes Marius made weaken the Republic?

To get land for his army.

Why did Marius march on Rome in 100 B.C.?

To get his command back.

Why did Sulla march on Rome in 87 B.C.?

Whoever had the army had power.

What did these 2 marches on Rome prove?


What position did Sulla hold between 82 - 79 B.C.?

enforced the Cursus Honorum

How did Sulla try to restore the Republic?

If 1 man can save it, it's already a Monarchy.

Why could Sulla not possibly succeed in restoring the Republic?

added 400 yes men which destroyed vitality, had them face his large throne, had first and last word

How did Sulla weaken the Senate (apart from proscriptions) (3)

rewards for killing enemies

Proscriptions = ________________

met secretly, one would be Consul each year and give armies to all 3

How did the First Triumvirate work?

all 3 got 100% of army

What did the arrangement in having Consul each year accomplish in the First Triumvirate?

Caesar -- ideas, Crassus -- money, Pompey -- army

Which 3 politicians were in the First Triumvirate and what was special about each one?

They were no longer family, since Julia was Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife.

How did Julia's death cause the demise of the First Triumvirate?

Crassus died fighting Parthians

What happened at the battle of Carrhae in 54 B.C. which further weakened the First Triumvirate?


Who was defeated by Caesar at the battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C.?

Dictator Perpetuus

What position did Caesar hold after his victory at the battle of Pharsalus?

Marc Antony

Who offered Caesar the crown thrice?

Brutus -- save the Republic, Cassius -- jealousy

Which 2 Senators led the assassination of Caesar and what were their motives?

Octavian -- Caesar's heir, Marc Antony -- Caesar's best friend, Lepidus -- Caesar's #2 general

Which 3 politicians were in the Second Triumvirate and what was special about each one?


Where were Caesar's assassins defeated?

Antony would not give Octavian his inheritance, Antony kept calling Octavian "boy," Antony dumped Octavia for Cleopatra, Antony was rumored to want to move the capital to Alexandria

Why did the Second Triumvirate collapse? (4)


Where was Antony defeated?

laws for life -- consul, sacrosanct for life -- tribune, everything for life -- dictator, religion -- Pontifex Maximus

What political powers did Octavian amass from 31 -- 28 B.C.? (4)

To get more power. God -- deus, chief -- princeps, Augustus -- Exalted One Your Majesty

Why did Octavian suddenly retire in 27 B.C. and what did he gain by this action? (3)

wore all purple togas, moved Rome's sacred ditch, renamed Quintilis July, moved the Rostra to face people not Senate, took the title Dictator Perpetuus, increased calendar by 5 days to 365, rebuilt the Forum, added foreigners to Senate, built temple to Venus as largest building and claimed he was related to her, put up statues of himself everywhere

Give at least 10 reasons as to why Julius Caesar was murdered.

doubling its size, making it into a cavalry, making it wear chainmail

Diocletian strengthened the Roman army by (3)


Diocletian divided empire in _______.

tying them to jobs and locations

Diocletian kept control of his people by _________.


Diocletian ruled the _______.

284 -- 305

Diocletian ruled from ____ to ____.

price increases

Diocletian banned ___________.


Diocletian saw in a dream _______.


Constantine _______ his empire.


Constantine moved the capital of his Empire from Rome to _______.

the Romans seered him, it was an easier place to defend, it was vital for trade

Constantine moved the capital because ___________. (3)


The new capital of Byzantium was renamed _______.


Constantine died in ____.

legalized all religions, became a Christian on his deathbed

With regard to religion, Constantine _______. (2)


The army of Constantine had __ painted on their shields.


The richest part of Constantine's empire was the _______.

F -- pressure from invasions

(T/F) Theodosius split the empire in half in 395.


(T/F) The Romans used the Goths to defend the frontier of the Wiroman empire during C4.


(T/F) Rome was sacked in 410.


(T/F) Vandalism comes from the name Vandal.

F -- Italy

(T/F) The Ostrogoths settled in Spain.

F -- North Africa

(T/F) The Vandals settled in Italy.

F -- The Franks and Burgundians settled in France.

(T/F) The Franks and Lombards settled in France.


(T/F) The Jutes, Saxons, and Angles settled in Britain.

F -- Spain

(T/F) The Visigoths settled in Italy.

F -- France

(T/F) The Burgundians settled in North Africa.

F -- Attila

(T/F) The Huns were led by Atilla.


(T/F) The Romans and Goths defeated the Huns at the battle of Chalons in 451.


(T/F) The Vandals sacked Rome in 455.

F -- Romulus Augustulus

(T/F) The last West Roman Emperor was Romulus Augustus.

F -- 476

(T/F) Romulus Augustulus was deposed in 476 B.C.


(T/F) Romulus Augustulus was replaced by Odoacer as king of Italy.


(T/F) The East Roman Empire lasted another 1000 years (approximately).

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