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111 terms

A&P Final Exam, Part 4

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B) gallbladder
All of the following are part of the gastrointestinal tract except the
A) stomach.
B) gallbladder.
C) esophagus.
D) small intestine.
E) pharynx
D) spleen
Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the digestive system?
A) liver
B) gallbladder
C) pancreas
D) spleen
E) teeth
submucosa
What is the layer of the GI tract wall that contains blood and lymphatic vessels?
motility
What is having the ability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length?
peritoneum
What is the greater omentum is part of?
in the submucosa
Where are enteric neurons found?
uvula
What is the projection hanging from the soft palate?
A) papillae
Which of the following contains taste buds?
A) papillae
B) uvula
C) tonsils
D) fauces
Skeletal
What muscle type is the tounge made up of?
carbs
What does salivary amylase secreted into the oral cavity starts the digestion of?
dentin
What bone-like substance is teeth are primarily composed of?
cementum
What is the dentin of the root covered by?
incisors
Which teeth are adapted to cutting food?
B) duodenum
All of the following are areas of the stomach EXCEPT
A) cardia.
B) duodenum.
C) fundus.
D) body.
E) pylorus.
cheif cells in the stomach
What is pepsinogen produced by?
rugae
What is the mucosa of the stomach, when empty, lies in large folds called?
Stomach
Where does the digestion of proteins by peptides start?
cholecystokinin
What is the hormone that inhibits gastric emptying?
duodenum
Where does the stomach release chyme?
E) alcohol
Which of the following substances can be absorbed by the stomach?
A) amino acids
B) nucleic acids
C) glucose
D) fatty acids
E) alcohol
gastrin
What do G cells secrete?
cholecystokinin
What is the feeling of satiety is caused by?
duodenum
The pancreatic duct transports secretions from the pancreas to the:
A) pepsin
All of the following are substances found in pancreatic juice EXCEPT
A) pepsin.
B) trypsin.
C) chymotrypsin.
D) ribonuclease.
E) lipase.
D) amylase
Which of the following is NOT a protein-digesting enzyme?
A) trypsin
B) chymotrypsin
C) carboxypeptidase
D) amylase
E) elastase
hepatocytes
How is bile produced?
hepatic portal vein
Substances absorbed by the small intestine are carried in the liver by the:
A) red blood cell production
All of the following are functions of the liver EXCEPT
A) red blood cell production.
B) storage of vitamins.
C) synthesis of bile salts.
D) excretion of bilirbin.
E) activation of Vitamin D.
small intestine
Where does most digestion and absorption occur?
ileum
What is the final portion of the small intestine?
peptidase
Which of the following is NOT an enzyme in the breakdown of carbohydrates?
A) pancreatic amylase
B) salivary amylase
C) maltase
D) peptidase
E) lactase
A) diffusion.
B) osmosis.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) active transport
How does absorption in the small intestine occur?
C) triglycerides
Which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
A) monosaccharides
B) amino acids
C) triglycerides
D) nucleic acids
cecum
What is the first part of the large intestine?
cecum
What is the appendix attached to?
A) water.
B) sodium.
C) chloride.
D) vitamins.
What does the large intestine absorb?
Sigmoid colon
The portion of the large intestine just before the rectum is the:
exocrine protein of the pancreas
What is the following:
A) is made of acinar cells.
B) secretes several different enzymes to digest the energy nutrients.
C) is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system.
D) connects to the alimentary canal by the pancreatic duct.
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
What describes the following:

A) stimulates the gall bladder to contract.
B) is released in response to lipids entering the duodenum.
C) stimulates the release of pancreatic juice.
D) slows the movement of chyme into the duodenum.
B) spleen
Which of the following does not release substances into the duodenum?
A) stomach
B) spleen.
C) gall bladder
D) pancreas.
E) liver.
ascending colon
Most of the nutrients have been absorbed from the chyme by the time it reaches the:
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, recutum
What is the correct order of movement of substances through the large intestine?
Liver
The organ that stores fat, glycogen, iron and certain minerals, and detoxifies certain chemicals is the:
mesentery
The __ is a 20 foot piece of peritoneum that keeps the small intestines from springing out all over.
cephalic phase
The sight, smell and sound of food activates the ___ ____ of digestion.
D) diarrhea
Which of the following is not a change in digestion associated with aging:
A) loss of taste
B) duodenal ulcers
C) constipation
D) diarrhea
E) periodontal disease
D) success
Which of the following is unlikely to be a cause of "emotional eating"?
A) unpleasant feelings like boredom
B) the possibility that carbohydrates raise serotonin levels
C) poor self esteem
D) success
E) stress
intestinal
Which phase of digestion does the following describe?
A) cholecystokinin produces a full feeling
B) secretin stimulates the flow of pancreatic juices
A
Which hepatitis is the infectious kind?
True
True or False: The inner lining of the GI tract is a mucous membrane.
True
True or False: The greater omentum contains many lymph nodes.
False
True or False: The tongue is part of the GI tract.
True
True or False: The lingual tonsil lies at the base of the tongue.
False
True or False: The submandibular glands lie in front of the sublingual glands.
True
True or False: Sympathetic stimulation results in dryness of the mouth.
False
True or False: The enzyme salivary amylase starts the breakdown of proteins in the mouth.
True
True or False: The esophagus lies behind the trachea.
True
True or False: The muscularis of the stomach has three layers.
False
True or False: Parasympathetic stimulation inhibits digestion.
True
True or False: The presence of chyme in the duodenum slows gastric emptying.
False
True or False: The liver is the heaviest organ of the body.
False
True or False: The gallbladder produces bile.
False
True or False: Chief cells are found in the large intestine.
True
True or False: Most of the energy nutrients are small enough to be absorbed in the small intestine by the blood capillaries but the nutrient, fatty acids, must be absorbed into lacteals.
True
True or False: Both food and air pass through the oropharynx so the uvula protects the nasal cavity when swallowing.
False
True or False: The mucosal layer of the large intestine is lined with millions of fingerlike projections called villi.
True
True or False: Many things can stimulate the vomit reflex including irritation, overextension of the stomach and various chemicals.
False
True or False: The cardiac sphincter (cardia) prevents food and acid from moving into the duodenum too quickly.
True
True or False: Aging tends to decrease or cause a loss of digestive functions.
True
True or False: Food has emotional, social and psychological functions as well as its nutritional value.
True
True or False: Both hormones and nerves control the phases of digestion.
True
True or False: Insoluble and soluble fiber have opposite effects on motility but aid in the digestive process and reduce the risk of developing serious digestive disorders.
False
True or False: Dental caries and periodontal disease are essentially the same thing.
gastroenterology
The medical specialty that deals with the structure, function, diagnosis, and treatment of the stomach and intestines is called ____.
ingestion
The physiological term for eating is _______.
peristalsis
The waves of muscular contraction in the GI tract are referred to as ____.
bolus
The food in the mouth is shaped into a rounded mass called the ____.
enamel
The dentin of the crown of a tooth is covered by ____.
esophageal
Swallowing is divided into tree stages: the voluntary stage, the pharyngeal stage, and the _____ stage.
body
The large, central portion of the stomach is called the ____.
parietal cells
Hydrochloric acid of the stomach is produced by ____.
submucosa
The enteric nervous system is found in the _______.
secretin
The intestinal hormone, which decreases gastric secretion, is ____.
pancreatic juice
The acini of the pancreas produce ____.
common bile duct
The common hepatic duct joins the cystic duct to form the ____.
bilirubin
The principal bile pigment is ____.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
The hormone responsible for the ejection of bile from the gallbladder is ____.
villi
The mucosa of the small intestine forms finger-like structures called ____.
lacteal
Each villus of the small intestine has a lymphatic vessel called a ____.
segmentation
The movements of the small intestine are peristalsis and ____.
peptidases
Protein digestion starts with pepsin and is completed by the enzyme ____.
micelles
Bile salts act as emulsifying agents forming tiny spheres called ____.
enterokinase
The inactive form of trypsin is activated by an enzyme called ______.
muscularis
The puckered appearance of the colon is caused by contractions of the ____________________.
bacteria
The last stage of digestion is carried out by ____.
Liver
Kupffer's cells are found in the _____.
hepatitis
An inflammation of the liver is called ______.
mucosa
What is the inner lining of the GI tract?
serosa
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract?
G cells
What secretes the hormone gastrin?
parietal cells
What produces HCl?
chief cells
What secretes pepsinogen?
paneth cells
What secretes lysozyomes?
high-density lipoproteins
What is considered "good" cholesterol?
low-density lipoproteins
What is considered "bad" cholesterol?
botulism
What is a type of food poisoning caused by a bacterial toxin?
Viral disease
What type of disease is hepatitis?
1) Ingestion- The take-in of food through the mouth
2) Mixing and movement of food along the digestive tract through muscle movement.
3) Digestion- The chemical and mechanical breakdown of food.
4) Absorption- The uptake of digested food from the GI tract into the circulation.
5) Defecation- The elimination of indigestible substances from the GI tract.
Name and describe the five basic activities of the digestive system.
1) Parotid glands are located under and in front of the ears between the skin and the masseter muscle.
2) The submandibular glands lie beneath the base of the tongue in the floor of the mouth.
3) The sublingual glands lie in front of the submandibular glands.
Name and briefly describe the location of the different salivary glands.
1. Carbohydrate metabolism
2. Lipid metabolism
3. Protein metabolism
4. Removal of drugs and hormones
5. Excretion of bile
6. Synthesis of bile salts
7. Storage
8. Phagocytosis
9. Activation of Vitamin D
Name the functions of the liver.
Monosaccharides, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids are absorbed into blood capillaries. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles, re-synthesized to triglycerides, and transported as chylomicrons.
Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteals.
Briefly describe the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.