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111 terms

A&P Final Exam, Part 4

B) gallbladder
All of the following are part of the gastrointestinal tract except the
A) stomach.
B) gallbladder.
C) esophagus.
D) small intestine.
E) pharynx
D) spleen
Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the digestive system?
A) liver
B) gallbladder
C) pancreas
D) spleen
E) teeth
What is the layer of the GI tract wall that contains blood and lymphatic vessels?
What is having the ability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length?
What is the greater omentum is part of?
in the submucosa
Where are enteric neurons found?
What is the projection hanging from the soft palate?
A) papillae
Which of the following contains taste buds?
A) papillae
B) uvula
C) tonsils
D) fauces
What muscle type is the tounge made up of?
What does salivary amylase secreted into the oral cavity starts the digestion of?
What bone-like substance is teeth are primarily composed of?
What is the dentin of the root covered by?
Which teeth are adapted to cutting food?
B) duodenum
All of the following are areas of the stomach EXCEPT
A) cardia.
B) duodenum.
C) fundus.
D) body.
E) pylorus.
cheif cells in the stomach
What is pepsinogen produced by?
What is the mucosa of the stomach, when empty, lies in large folds called?
Where does the digestion of proteins by peptides start?
What is the hormone that inhibits gastric emptying?
Where does the stomach release chyme?
E) alcohol
Which of the following substances can be absorbed by the stomach?
A) amino acids
B) nucleic acids
C) glucose
D) fatty acids
E) alcohol
What do G cells secrete?
What is the feeling of satiety is caused by?
The pancreatic duct transports secretions from the pancreas to the:
A) pepsin
All of the following are substances found in pancreatic juice EXCEPT
A) pepsin.
B) trypsin.
C) chymotrypsin.
D) ribonuclease.
E) lipase.
D) amylase
Which of the following is NOT a protein-digesting enzyme?
A) trypsin
B) chymotrypsin
C) carboxypeptidase
D) amylase
E) elastase
How is bile produced?
hepatic portal vein
Substances absorbed by the small intestine are carried in the liver by the:
A) red blood cell production
All of the following are functions of the liver EXCEPT
A) red blood cell production.
B) storage of vitamins.
C) synthesis of bile salts.
D) excretion of bilirbin.
E) activation of Vitamin D.
small intestine
Where does most digestion and absorption occur?
What is the final portion of the small intestine?
Which of the following is NOT an enzyme in the breakdown of carbohydrates?
A) pancreatic amylase
B) salivary amylase
C) maltase
D) peptidase
E) lactase
A) diffusion.
B) osmosis.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) active transport
How does absorption in the small intestine occur?
C) triglycerides
Which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
A) monosaccharides
B) amino acids
C) triglycerides
D) nucleic acids
What is the first part of the large intestine?
What is the appendix attached to?
A) water.
B) sodium.
C) chloride.
D) vitamins.
What does the large intestine absorb?
Sigmoid colon
The portion of the large intestine just before the rectum is the:
exocrine protein of the pancreas
What is the following:
A) is made of acinar cells.
B) secretes several different enzymes to digest the energy nutrients.
C) is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system.
D) connects to the alimentary canal by the pancreatic duct.
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
What describes the following:

A) stimulates the gall bladder to contract.
B) is released in response to lipids entering the duodenum.
C) stimulates the release of pancreatic juice.
D) slows the movement of chyme into the duodenum.
B) spleen
Which of the following does not release substances into the duodenum?
A) stomach
B) spleen.
C) gall bladder
D) pancreas.
E) liver.
ascending colon
Most of the nutrients have been absorbed from the chyme by the time it reaches the:
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, recutum
What is the correct order of movement of substances through the large intestine?
The organ that stores fat, glycogen, iron and certain minerals, and detoxifies certain chemicals is the:
The __ is a 20 foot piece of peritoneum that keeps the small intestines from springing out all over.
cephalic phase
The sight, smell and sound of food activates the ___ ____ of digestion.
D) diarrhea
Which of the following is not a change in digestion associated with aging:
A) loss of taste
B) duodenal ulcers
C) constipation
D) diarrhea
E) periodontal disease
D) success
Which of the following is unlikely to be a cause of "emotional eating"?
A) unpleasant feelings like boredom
B) the possibility that carbohydrates raise serotonin levels
C) poor self esteem
D) success
E) stress
Which phase of digestion does the following describe?
A) cholecystokinin produces a full feeling
B) secretin stimulates the flow of pancreatic juices
Which hepatitis is the infectious kind?
True or False: The inner lining of the GI tract is a mucous membrane.
True or False: The greater omentum contains many lymph nodes.
True or False: The tongue is part of the GI tract.
True or False: The lingual tonsil lies at the base of the tongue.
True or False: The submandibular glands lie in front of the sublingual glands.
True or False: Sympathetic stimulation results in dryness of the mouth.
True or False: The enzyme salivary amylase starts the breakdown of proteins in the mouth.
True or False: The esophagus lies behind the trachea.
True or False: The muscularis of the stomach has three layers.
True or False: Parasympathetic stimulation inhibits digestion.
True or False: The presence of chyme in the duodenum slows gastric emptying.
True or False: The liver is the heaviest organ of the body.
True or False: The gallbladder produces bile.
True or False: Chief cells are found in the large intestine.
True or False: Most of the energy nutrients are small enough to be absorbed in the small intestine by the blood capillaries but the nutrient, fatty acids, must be absorbed into lacteals.
True or False: Both food and air pass through the oropharynx so the uvula protects the nasal cavity when swallowing.
True or False: The mucosal layer of the large intestine is lined with millions of fingerlike projections called villi.
True or False: Many things can stimulate the vomit reflex including irritation, overextension of the stomach and various chemicals.
True or False: The cardiac sphincter (cardia) prevents food and acid from moving into the duodenum too quickly.
True or False: Aging tends to decrease or cause a loss of digestive functions.
True or False: Food has emotional, social and psychological functions as well as its nutritional value.
True or False: Both hormones and nerves control the phases of digestion.
True or False: Insoluble and soluble fiber have opposite effects on motility but aid in the digestive process and reduce the risk of developing serious digestive disorders.
True or False: Dental caries and periodontal disease are essentially the same thing.
The medical specialty that deals with the structure, function, diagnosis, and treatment of the stomach and intestines is called ____.
The physiological term for eating is _______.
The waves of muscular contraction in the GI tract are referred to as ____.
The food in the mouth is shaped into a rounded mass called the ____.
The dentin of the crown of a tooth is covered by ____.
Swallowing is divided into tree stages: the voluntary stage, the pharyngeal stage, and the _____ stage.
The large, central portion of the stomach is called the ____.
parietal cells
Hydrochloric acid of the stomach is produced by ____.
The enteric nervous system is found in the _______.
The intestinal hormone, which decreases gastric secretion, is ____.
pancreatic juice
The acini of the pancreas produce ____.
common bile duct
The common hepatic duct joins the cystic duct to form the ____.
The principal bile pigment is ____.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
The hormone responsible for the ejection of bile from the gallbladder is ____.
The mucosa of the small intestine forms finger-like structures called ____.
Each villus of the small intestine has a lymphatic vessel called a ____.
The movements of the small intestine are peristalsis and ____.
Protein digestion starts with pepsin and is completed by the enzyme ____.
Bile salts act as emulsifying agents forming tiny spheres called ____.
The inactive form of trypsin is activated by an enzyme called ______.
The puckered appearance of the colon is caused by contractions of the ____________________.
The last stage of digestion is carried out by ____.
Kupffer's cells are found in the _____.
An inflammation of the liver is called ______.
What is the inner lining of the GI tract?
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract?
G cells
What secretes the hormone gastrin?
parietal cells
What produces HCl?
chief cells
What secretes pepsinogen?
paneth cells
What secretes lysozyomes?
high-density lipoproteins
What is considered "good" cholesterol?
low-density lipoproteins
What is considered "bad" cholesterol?
What is a type of food poisoning caused by a bacterial toxin?
Viral disease
What type of disease is hepatitis?
1) Ingestion- The take-in of food through the mouth
2) Mixing and movement of food along the digestive tract through muscle movement.
3) Digestion- The chemical and mechanical breakdown of food.
4) Absorption- The uptake of digested food from the GI tract into the circulation.
5) Defecation- The elimination of indigestible substances from the GI tract.
Name and describe the five basic activities of the digestive system.
1) Parotid glands are located under and in front of the ears between the skin and the masseter muscle.
2) The submandibular glands lie beneath the base of the tongue in the floor of the mouth.
3) The sublingual glands lie in front of the submandibular glands.
Name and briefly describe the location of the different salivary glands.
1. Carbohydrate metabolism
2. Lipid metabolism
3. Protein metabolism
4. Removal of drugs and hormones
5. Excretion of bile
6. Synthesis of bile salts
7. Storage
8. Phagocytosis
9. Activation of Vitamin D
Name the functions of the liver.
Monosaccharides, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids are absorbed into blood capillaries. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles, re-synthesized to triglycerides, and transported as chylomicrons.
Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteals.
Briefly describe the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.