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Quarter 3 Exam Review Questions
Terms in this set (70)
Who was Tecumseh?
A Native American leader who united several tribes in the Ohio River Valley against the Americans who had pushing them off their land. Tecumseh and other Native Americans fought with the British against the American army in the war of 1812. Tecumseh won several battles for the British but was killed by William Henry Harrison at the battle of Thames. Tecumseh's death marked the end of Native American resistance to American settement in the Ohio River Valley
What were the causes of the War of 1812?
-The British interfered in American trade (stopping American trade ships)
-The British impressed American sailors
-The British never left forts in the Ohio River Valley and had been giving Native Americans weapons to fight the Americans
-Some American Congressmen (war hawks) wanted to take over British Canada
Which Americans opposed the war of 1812 and why?
Federalists from New England opposed the war of 1812 because they knew that the British would use a blockade against American ports. Federalists from New England depended on trade for their economy. The blockade would greatly hurt their economy
Where did the first battles of the War of 1812 take place? Which side won these early battles?
The first battles of the War of 1812 were American attacks on forts along the border of Canada because Americans wanted to take Canada from the British
What happened to Washington D.C. during the war of 1812?
The British troops invaded and burned down the city and the white house. Dolly Madison (first lady) escaped with a portrait of George Washington.
What happened in the Battle of Baltimore(Ft. Mc Henry)?
The British bombarded fort Mc Henry in Baltimore all day and night. Despite over 12 hours of attack, the American flag is still flying by the morning which was a sign that the Americans did not lose the battle. As a result of this success, Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner which becomes the National Anthem as it shows that the Americans remained determined to keep their independence
Treaty of Ghent
peace was declared and the war was over when the Treaty of Ghent was signed.
-NO ONE IS DECLARED A WINNER OF THE WAR
-This treaty leaves all boundaries the same (Great Britain and America both do not gain new land)
-impressment was not addressed in the treaty but it was no longer an issue because the British no longer needed sailors to fight the French
Battle of New Orleans
This battle took place after peace is declared in the Treaty of Ghent, because it took awhile for the news to reach New Orleans from Europe.
Even though this battle was unnecessary, it was still important for American pride. Under the leadership of Andrew Jackson, and his diverse group of troops, Americans defeated the British with very few losses on their own side.
This is one of the best military victories ever, which proved to the America that they could defeat any country that tried to invade the United States. This increases patriotism/ nationalism (pride for their own country)
Effects of the War of 1812
-Increase in American patriotism/nationalism as the Americas proved that they are a strong nation by standing up to the British for a second time.
-The Federalist Party died out because of their opposition to the war. They were seen as traitors for not supporting the war
-Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison were seen as heroes for their efforts in the war and later became presidents
-Growth of American Manufacturing in America because as a result of the blockade, the Americans were forced to create their own manufactured goods
-Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley no longer had leadership or support to help them fight back against American settlement onto their land (no longer have Tecumseh as a leader)
What was the Monroe Doctrine and what did it state?
A foreign policy statement from the United States to world. It stated that the United States would not tolerate European colonization or intervention in any country in the Western Hemisphere
In return, the U.S. would stay out of European conflicts (remain neutral) and not interfere with any of Europe's existing colonies.
This was an example of isolationist foreign policy (staying out of foreign issues)
What is the overall message of this political cartoon? (make sure you know how to do an analysis of a cartoon of the Monroe Doctrine)
What were the geographical features and climate of the Northeast region?
Rocky soil, mountainous land and fast moving rivers, cold climate
What were the geographical features and climate of the Southern region?
warm, humid, rainy, fertile soil
Which region specialized in manufacturing?
Which region specialized in producing grains like wheat and corn?
Which region specialized in cash crops like sugar, cotton and tobacco?
What is a major effect of regional specialization and why?
Economic interdependence is an effect because as regions in a country specialize in producing a certain type of good, they will need to import other goods from the other regions
What are some examples of economic interdependence between the north and south?
-The north imported cotton from the south to make textiles
-The south imported manufactured goods from the north
What inventions led to industrialization in the northeast?
Spinning Jenny, Interchangeable Parts and the Steam Engine
What was an effect of industrialization/ industrial revolution in the 1800s and why?
Urbanization was an effect because a lot of people were needed to work in factories. As people moved nearby to factories where they worked, they created an urban area (densely populated area)
What geographical feature contributed to industrialization in the north and why?
Fast-moving rivers because they were used to power the first factories (water wheel).
What contributed to regional specialization in the 1800s?
Technology/Inventions. Some inventions made helped certain economies grow (such as the cotton gin leading to a growth in plantation farming in the south and the spinning jenny leading to greater industrialization in the north.) In addition, some inventions increased trade between regions. This created competition between regions and the regions that produced the most of a certain type of good put the other regions out of that type of work, and forced them to specialize in only what they were good at
Why did so many Irish immigrants come to the United States in the early to mid 1800s?
The potato famine: A potato crop failure in Ireland caused many people to not have enough food to eat, so some emigrated to the United States
Why did nativists discriminate against the Irish?
They disliked the Irish because they were Catholic (unlike most Americans), they were often poor and because they came in large numbers (overcrowding of cities)
What was the Know-Nothing Party?
A nativist political party that wanted to restrict immigration to the United States
What was an effect of the national road, steamboat, canals and railroad?
Increased economic interdependence between regions. As trade increased, regions specialized even more. This caused them to be dependent on each other for goods (they could now more easily import goods from other regions)
What impact did the cotton gin have on the southern economy?
It led the south to form more cotton plantations. As a result slavery increased because more slaves were used to pick cotton to keep up with the demand
What was Universal manhood suffrage?
When all white males gained the right to vote (now poor white men could vote) This was gained in many states during the 1820s and 1830s
Who were Jackson's supporters?
common people (farmers, poor, uneducated)
What political party did Jackson form?
What was Jacksonian Democracy?
the idea that the common people should control the government
What was the spoils system?
Jackson's practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs
Which region supported the Tariff of 1828 and why?
Northerners because the tariff would make European manufactured goods more expensive, which would cause more customers in America to purchase manufactured goods from the north
Which region opposed the Tariff of 1828 and why?
Southerners because the tariff would make manufactured goods more expensive and because European countries would probably put a tariff on American goods- specifically cotton which was grown in the south
What was the Nullification Crisis?
South Carolina nullified the tariff of 1828 and even threatened to secede (separate) from the country
Did Jackson support the national bank? Why or why not?
Jackson did not support the national bank because he thought it unfairly favored wealthy northerners
What was the Second Great Awakening?
A religious revival in the early 1800s
Preachers taught that you could be saved if you lived a life free of sin and made society better for others
What did the Second Great Awakening lead to?
Social Reform Movements:
-Prison & Asylum reform
Where was slavery abolished first (what region) and how was it abolished?
All northern states had abolished slavery by the early 1800s. Most northern states had gone through gradual emancipation (freeing of slaves over time)
What were some tactics taken by abolitionists to raise awareness of slavery?
Many northerners had never known an enslaved person, and did not understand the reality of slavery. Therefore the used the following methods to raise awareness of slavery and convince more people to support abolition:
-Distributed fliers/pamphlets to show people that slaves are humans (men and women)
-Distributed photographs and political cartoons that showed the brutality of slavery
-Wrote books that showed the reality of life under slavery
-Published abolitionist newspapers
-Held anti-slavery meetings and fairs
-Gave speeches and sermons on abolition
What were common beliefs of abolitionists?
-slavery was immoral/ unjust
-slavery went against the teachings of the Bible
-slavery was un-American: it was hypocritical for a country that promoted the ideas of "freedom" and "equality," as stated in the Declaration of Independence, to allow slavery
What were some direct actions abolitionists took to end slavery?
-Petitioning the federal government to abolish slavery
-Boycotting goods made by enslaved people such as cotton (and trying to convince European countries to as well)
-Organizing slave rebellions/revolts
What were the influences on the women's rights movement?
-Second Great Awakening
-Declaration of Independence: idea of inalienable rights and equality
-Abolitionism: Stanton and Mott first met at an abolitionist conference. They also discussed how women, like enslaved people, had very few rights
What were the goals of the women's rights movement?
For women to gain:
-a right to property and to keep wages they earn
-access to good paying jobs and equal pay
-civil rights: such as the right to divorce
-the right to vote
Who joined the Women's Rights Movement?
Women and men of diverse backgrounds
Why did Americans feel they were justified in taking land in the west?
-Because they believed it was their Manifest Destiny
-To spread democracy
-To spread Christianity
-Because they believed America was a more civilized and technologically advanced country than the places they were taking over
How did the U.S. gain the land in the west?
In several different ways:
-Forcefully taken (Florida)
-War (Mexican American War)
-Peaceful Treaty (Louisiana Purchase, Gadsden Purchase, Oregon Treaty)
What were the Causes of the Louisiana Purchase?
-Napoleon (French leader) had originally purchased Louisiana to feed slaves in the French colony of Haiti, but after the Haitian Revolution (in which the enslaved people won their freedom from France), Napoleon no longer needed the territory for that purpose
-Napoleon needed money to continue fighting the British
-The United States wanted to have access to the port of New Orleans and Mississippi River for trade President Jefferson originally only wanted to purchase New Orleans but Napoleon offered all of the Louisiana Territory
What were the effects of the Louisiana Purchase?
-American land doubled
-American debt increased
-Some criticized the purchase as unconstitutional (because the Constitution did not state whether the government could purchase land)
-It led to westward expansion
What did the Corps of Discovery accomplish?
They explored the lands of the Louisiana Purchase and:
-They discovered many plants and animals that Americans did not know about
-They created maps of the land all the way to the Pacific Ocean
-They made peaceful contact with Native American tribes and recorded information about them for future use by American settlers
What was a major effect of the Corps of Discovery?
Their notes, maps and discoveries led to westward expansion because they provided a guide to the west for future settlement
What were the causes of the Adams-Onis Treaty?
Slave owners in Georgia were angry because slaves sometimes ran away to Florida, and were welcomed by Seminole Indians. In addition, some Seminoles raided lands in Georgia. Florida was a Spanish colony but Spain had weak control of Florida and did nothing to stop the Seminoles.
What did America gain in the Adams-Onis Treaty? Why?
Spain agreed to give up Florida to America. Spain already had conflict in its other colonies and could not afford to go to war with American over Florida
What were the causes of the Indian Removal?
Americans wanted to move onto Native American land because it was fertile and they wanted to settle on it to grow crops. In addition gold was discovered on Cherokee land.
Indian Removal Act
President Jackson supported and approved this law which allowed the American government to make treaties with Native Americans in order to move them west. This act caused thousands of Native Americans in the southeast to be moved off their land and forced onto reservations in the west.
What was the "Trail of Tears"?
In 1838 18,000 Cherokees were forced from their lands in Georgia and forced by federal troops to move west.
4,000 died on this long winter walk, due to starvation, the spread of disease and the cold. This was devastating for all the Cherokee and why the Cherokee called it the "Trail of Tears"
What were the sectional differences between the North and the South that led to the Civil War?
North: Industrial, favored tariffs because they helped protect factories in the US from running out of business due to cheap competition
South: Agricultural, opposed tariffs because they hurt their economy
-Views on the power of Government
North: strong federal government is necessary
South: States should have a right to make most decisions for themselves ("states rights")
-Views on Slavery:
North: had abolished slavery, and did not want it to spread west
South: its economy depended on slavery. Felt that each state should decide for itself if it wanted slavery or not, but did not want slave states to be outnumbered by free states
Why were many compromises made over the issue of slavery in the 1800s?
Compromises were made (such as the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850) to keep the balance between free and slave states. The purpose of this was to prevent either the north or south from gaining a majority of votes in the Congress (in particular in the Senate.) Keeping the balance of free and slave states would prevent either region being able to overpower the other region and get a law passed that might harm the other region
How did westward expansion lead to compromises over slavery?
As the country gained new land (such as the Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession) decisions had to be made on whether new territories/states should be free or slave holding
What was the Missouri Compromise?
The first compromise between the north and the south in 1820
-Added Missouri as a slave state
-Added Maine as a free state
-Created Missouri Compromise line at 36 30 latitude line which divided the Louisiana territory, abolishing slavery above the line (except for Missouri) and permitting slavery below the line.
This compromise kept peace temporarily but it didn't please either side and tension continued
What were the causes of the Texas Revolution?
-Texans (American immigrants/settlers) outnumbered the Mexicans in Texas). The Texans refused to follow Mexican laws. This caused tension between the Texans and the Mexican government.
-General Lopez de Santa Anna became a dictator of Mexico and he wanted to crack down and enforce Mexican law. This led to conflict between the Texans (American immigrants) and the Mexican government
-American settlers in Texas wanted Texas to become independent from Mexico because they believed that the Mexican government was tryannical. They declared their independence
What happened in the battle of the Alamo?
200 Texans refused to leave the fort the Alamo. Santa Anna put the fort under siege and eventually attacked killing all of the Texans (American immigrants) inside. This caused the Texans to use the battle cry "Remember the Alamo!" as a battle cry to get people to continue to fight against the Mexican government
How did the Texas Revolution end?
The Texans captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a document that declared that Texas was an independent country. Texas was an independent country for 10 years following the Texas Revolution
What was the debate over annexing Texas?
Some Americans from the north opposed the idea of annexing Texas because they did not want there to be another slave state. Also, some Americans opposed annexation because they feared that it would lead to a war with Mexico.
James K. Polk decided to annex Texas when he became president, in 1845.
causes of the Mexican-American war
-America annexed Texas in 1845, but Mexicans had not fully acknowledged that it had ever left Mexico
-Texans/Americans disagreed with Mexico about what was the southern border of Texas: Mexico said it was the Nueces river (which meant that Mexico had more land) and Texas said the southern border was the Rio Grande river (which meant that America had more land) Basically Mexico and America both claimed the same land in southern Texas.
-James K. Polk wanted to accomplish Manifest Destiny, and claim Texas, New Mexico and California.
Often called "Polks War." This was a war fought between Mexico and America, in which America is trying to gain Mexican land. This war was fought between 1845 to 1848, and nearly all battles were won by the American army.
What was the Compromise of 1850?
This was an effect of new land gained in the Mexican American War (Mexican Cession)
When California wanted to be admitted as a free state a decision had to be made about how to divide this land in order to also satisfy southerners.
The Compromise of 1850 made the following decisions:
-California would be added as a free state
-New Mexico and Utah territories would be open to slavery (through popular sovereignty)
-National Fugitive Slave Act passed
What was the Fugitive Slave Act?
The most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850. This act required northerners to turn in escaped slaves. Anyone who helped a runaway slave, even if just by not reporting them could also be arrested. This angered northern abolitionists, who felt like the law forced them to be slave catchers in free territory.
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
A law passed in 1854
Kansas and Nebraska territories could decide if they wanted to become free or slave states (popular sovereignty.) However,this act overturned the Missouri Compromise by allowing slavery over the Missouri Compromise line
What happened in Kansas after the Kansas Nebraska Act?
Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery groups settled in Kansas with the hopes of voting to make Kansas either a free or slave state
However, tensions arose between both of these groups and eventually violence broke out- first the pro-slavery settlers attacked, then in response John Brown (northern abolitionist) killed pro-slavery settlers
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