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29 terms

Lab/Lecture Exam I- Lymphatic System

Source: Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Maual (7th edition) by: Elaine N. Mariab
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lymphatic system
This system's funtions are (1) to transport tissue fluid to the blood vessels, and (2) to protect the body by removing foreign material such as bacteria from the lymphatic stream and by serving as a cite for lymphocytes "policing of body fluids and lymphocyte multiplication. It is a one-way system that carries lymph only towards the heart.
Right lymphatic duct
Drains lymph from the right upper extremity, head, and thorax delivered by the jugular, subclavian, and bronchomediastinal trunks. It empties into the venous circulation at the junstion of the internal jugular vein an the subclavian vein.
Thoracic duct
receives lymph from all other areas of the body with the exception of the right arm, right side of head, and right chest. It empties into the venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian vein.
lymph nodes
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation
macrophages
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
cisterna chyli
the prominent sac of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the digestive viscera
Superficial lymph nodes
cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal nodes
Deep lymph nodes
thoracic, abdominal, intestinal, and mesenteric
subclavian veins
carry blood out of the arms and to the heart
pharyngeal tonsil
lacated at the back of the nose at place called the nasopharynx; unites the back if mouth with back of the throat
palatine tonsil
located at the back of the mouth. cells there that can help fight infection and are removed in tonsilectomies. This is the largest and most often infected
Spleen
The body's largest lymphatic organ which consists of two compartments. One is filled with red pulp (full of RBC that can be released if necessary) and one with white pulp (full of lymphocytes and macrophages)
afferent lymphatic vessels
vessels that travel to the lymph node and are responsible for exposing lymph to the WBCs
efferent lymphatic vessles
vessles that exit from the lymph node
capsule
the surface of the lymph node. It is strong and gives strength
cortex
found below the capsule in the lymph node. With in this structure is the lymphatic nodule, germinal center
medulla
deeper layer under the cortex of the lymph node. It consists of dark staining area which is surrounded by lymph, and plasma cells and acrophages which will respomd if there is something bad that it comes in contact with
Reticular Epithelial Cells
Cells that seal off the cortex of the thymus from the medulla and surround blood vessles and lymphocyte clusters in the cortex. They form a blood-thymus barrier that isolates developing lymphocytes from blood-borne antigens
Thymus
a member of both the lymphatic and endocrine system because it houses developing lymphocytes and secretes hormones that regulate their later activity
lymphatic organs
aka lymphoid organs. have well-deingied anatomical sites and at least partial connective tissue capsules that separate the lymphatic tissue from neighboring tissues
lymphatic nodules
a congretation of lymphocytes and macrophages. Often abundant within lymph nodes, tonsils, and appendix
lymphatic tissues
aggrgations of lymphocytes in the connective tissue of mucous membranes and various organs
lymphatic cells
Natural Killer (NK) cells, T lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic cells, reticular cells
lymph
clear, colorless fluid, similar to blood plasma but low in protein. It originates as fluid that has been taken up by th lymphatic vessels. Contains a large number of lymphocytes
lymphatic vessels
a system that the lymph flows through
lymphatic capillaries
the first of the lymphatic vessels which are microscopic and penetrate nearly every tissue of the body. They are closed at one end; it consists of a sac of endothelial cells that loosely overlap each other like shingles and are tethered to surrounding tissue by protein filaments that prevent the sac from collapsing
collecting vessles
formed by the convergence of lymphatic capillaries. At irregular intervals, they empty into lymph nodes and they eventually converge to form a larger lymphatic trunk
lymphatic trunk
the convergence of collecting vessels to form a larger vessel which drains a major protion of the body, there are six of these.
collecting ducts
the two areas where the lymphatic trunks convege. These are the largest of the lymphatic ducts