GEOLOGY exam 1
Terms in this set (42)
After reclassification in 2005, Pluto is no longer considered a planet because it
It has not cleared its orbit of other objects; it shares an orbit
The earliest nebulae to form in the Universe were made almost entirely of
Helium and Hydrogen
Identify the FALSE statement. Stellar nucleosynthesis
produces heavy elements with atomic numbers greater than iron.
he current theory that explains the formation of our Moon states that it
was formed by the collision of Earth with a Mars-sized protoplanet
Which of the following serves as a trap for cosmic rays and shields life on Earth from excessive radiation?
Van Allen Belts
The two most common gases of Earth's atmosphere are
Nitrogen and Oxygen
Identify the FALSE statement about Earth's atmosphere.
FALSE: it was initially water vapor and nitrogen
TRUE: is composed of 78% oxygen, 21% nitrogen, and 1% trace amounts of various gases
Which of Earth's layers accounts for most of the volume of Earth?
Alfred Wegener died in 1930. Approximately how many years after his death was plate tectonics a theory widely accepted by scientists?
about 20 yrs
Which evidence did NOT contribute to Wegener's theory of Continental Drift
1.Coasts of continents looked like they fit together at one point
Glaciers extend from pole to equator of matching rock, glacial striations, and glacial till
3.Climatic belts align in a logical manner where continents reconfigure
4.Same fossils occur on different sides of the ocean- and there's no way they could have swam across
5.Belts of rock and mountains match up after reconstruction
-Lower layer of the Crust; warm enough to flow slowly
-is soft and able to flow
- it is able to slowly convect and move within the interior of the earth
The center of a mid-ocean ridge is where
new oceanic lithosphere is being created
Accretionary prisms form due to what process?
Identify the TRUE statements about continental margins. (HINT: more than 1 answer)
-they can be passive or active
-earthquakes occur at active margins
the Himalayas are growing because
Continental/continental collision at convergent plate margins moving toward each other.
-a continental plate is colliding with another continental plate there
Which type of chemical bond occurs when atoms share electrons, as shown in this diagram?
Which of the following is a mineral?
T/F A euhedral crystal has sharp crystal faces
An unknown mineral scratches your fingernail but not a knife blade. The mineral has a hardness...
When you scrape a mineral along a ceramic plate to observe the color of its powder, you are checking the physical property known as:
Identify the FALSE statement. Silicates:
are a large category of minerals and include the common minerals calcite and dolomite.
TRUE: include oceanic/continental crust, most common
Which of the following statements accurately describes a property that is NOT useful in identifying quartz?
Color, because quartz can be many different colors.
"Wet" igneous rock melts at a lower temperature than the "dry" version of that same rock because
the addition of volatiles in "wet" rocks lowers their melting temperature
Which of the following is NOT an intrusive igneous structure?
The following are:
Which is NOT a tectonic setting for igneous activity?
continental transform-fault zones
The following are:
volcanic arcs bordering ocean trenches
After an explosive volcanic eruption on an island, the surrounding sea is full of light-gray floating rock. What must it be?
A lahar is
A volcanic mud-and-debris flow that resembles fluid concrete
hot or cold mixture of water and rock fragments
Which of the following is NOT a form of lava?
The following ARE:
The presence of pillow lava is evidence of what volcanic circumstance?
A submarine volcano
Yellowstone is a classic example of which type of volcanism?
continental hot spot
A large circular depression created by the collapse of the volcano into the drained magma chamber is known as a
As sediment is transported downstream, away from its point of origin, the particles become
Clastic sediments increase in maturity as they are transported farther from their point of origin.
-smaller, increasingly well-rounded, and well-sorted, and easily weathered grains are gradually destroyed
Rocks formed dominantly from the calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms are classified as _____ and called _____.
Biochemical and limestone
When sea level rises, the shoreline migrates inland, flooding the land and depositing coastal sediments over pre-existing terrestrial sediments. This process is called
Identify the FALSE statement about metamorphic rocks
Cannot be formed below 1200 degrees Celsius
The concentration of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere before the industrial revolution was ~275 ppm. Since then, the concentration has increased by
Name TWO environments where might you expect sedimentary rocks to form.
The tendency of a mineral to break and produce a standard set of surfaces is termed:
Identify the FALSE statement about plate tectonics.
passive margins are plate boundaries
TRUE: plate boundaries are ACTIVE margins not PASSIVE , where earthquakes occur
The chain of Hawaiian Islands extends northwest across the Pacific. The island of Hawaii is the youngest, and the islands get progressively older to the northwest. Plate tectonic theory explains this as
the hot spot stays in the same place- but the plate is moving
same material composition as a diamond but a different type of chemical bond
Mt. St. Helens erupted explosively in 1980. The mountain is huge and is composed of layers of lava and pyroclastic debris. Which of the following is therefore
most likely TRUE?
stratovolcano, explosive eruption
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