214 terms

MKTG 3310 Exam 2

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consumer behavior
___ includes:
-actions related to the purchase and use of a product
-processes before and after purchase and use
-mental and social processes
problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior
what are the 5 stages of purchase decision process? (in order)
problem recognition
___ is perceiving a difference in one's ideal and actual situations; the initial stage of the purchase decision process
problem recognition
____ is most likely to trigger additional stages in the purchase decision process in the following situation:
Pete returned home to a broken fridge, and most of food must be thrown out
current, ideal
problem recognition is perceiving the difference between the ___ state (consumer is hot and thirsty) and the ___ state (consumer is refreshed from drinking water)
internal, external
routine purchase many only require ___ information search, but one time high expense purchases require more ___ info search time
internal
a consumer is most likely to use an ___ search when he buys a brand that he is loyal, like apple, and owns ipod and iphone previously
internal and external search
2 categories of info search:
evaluated
info that is gathered abt various products and brands in the info search stage must then be sorted out so that alternatives can be ___ in the next stage of the PDP
evaluative criteria
___ is the objective and subjective attributes that are considered as a consumer evaluates a product
evaluative criteria
consumer is using ___ when he bases his decision to purchase textbooks on price, condition, and location
consideration
Jill is in the market to buy a new car but only considering American made cars. The American car makers are in her ___ set
consideration set
___: the group of brands that a consumer believes would be acceptable for purchase
whom, when
from ___ to buy from and ___ to buy are the 2 choices left for a consumer once she has made the decision on an alternative
return policy, cost
Bill is torn between buying laptop at best buy or online from Dell. Which are 2 evaluative criteria in this decision?
postpurchase
the final step and very important element in retaining and building a loyal customer base in the PDP is the ___ behavior phase
postpurchase behavior
___ is critical to marketing mngrs primarily because it is the opportunity for marketers to measure and track satisfaction
cognitive dissonance
after her purchase of a car, Maria experienced ___ as she agonized over whether or not she made the right choice
high-involvement purchase
___ will typically have the following characteristics:
-products that could reflect on one's social image
-requires extensive external search
extended, limited, and routine problem solving
what are the 3 problem-solving variations for consumer purchase decisions?
high-involvement
a consumer in a ___ purchase will typically go through all 5 stages with emphasis on external search and alternative evaluation
limited
Mason is trying to decide where to go for lunch and wants to go somewhere new. he asks his coworkers for suggestions. he is demonstrating which type of problem solving?
advertising, quality, supply
a market leading beer company's marketing strategy would most likely involve an emphasis on reinforcing ___, and maintaing ___ and ___
purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states
the 5 situational influences that have an impact on the purchase decision process are the:
physical surrounds
the following describes which type of social influence?
-store layout, decor and music
one's self-concept
sociocultural, psychological, and situational influences affect ___
psychological
value, beliefs, attitudes, and learning are considered ____ influences on the purchase decision process
motivation
___ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need
social
the following is an example of ___ of the hierarchical needs for a week's stay in a hotel:
a hotel has a restaurant on the premises that advertises "when you're here, you're family"
safety
the following is an example of ___ of the hierarchical needs for a week's stay in a hotel:
there are precautions taken to prevent people not staying in hotel from getting to floors where guests stay
physiological
the following is an example of ___ of the hierarchical needs for a week's stay in a hotel: one restaurant in the hotel is open 24 hours a day for nourishing meals
personal
the following is an example of ___ of the hierarchical needs for a week's stay in a hotel: the hotel offers guest suites at 3 premium levels beyond the regular room
self-actualization
the following is an example of ___ of the hierarchical needs for a week's stay in a hotel: the guest enjoys the hiking and meditation options that are on the mountain close to the hotel
physiological, personal
the needs for shelter and food are __ needs, and need for designer clothes are ___ needs
self-actualization
climbing mount kilimanjaro to fulfill a personal dream would be a ___ need
personality
___ is often identified by researchers through the use of key traits, or enduring characteristics of a person
personality traits
___ include assertiveness, extroversion, and dominance
actual, ideal
marketers recognize that people have 2 types of self-concepts; ___ and ___
perception
apple named the iphone as such to allow the consumer to organize the new object into the phone category, and also categorize it as an apple product. apple facilitated consumers' ___
perception
___ is an individualistic process; where one sees the Cadillac as a mark of achievement, others many see it as ostentatious
selective perception
___ is the process by which consumer filter info to limit it to what they want to see
selective exposure, selective comprehension
according to the concepts of ___ and ___, you are most likely to pay attention to and interpret info that is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs
subliminal perception
evidence regarding ___ suggests that it has a limited effect on behavior, if any
perceived risk
examples of ___:
worrying abt expense of purchase, possibility of harm in some way, or worrying that your friends will make fun of it
perceived risk
alexis chose armand plumbing for her remodel. she noticed the better business bureau logo in the website, and it probably worked to limit her ___
cognitive
___ learning is occurring in the following situation:
bob hears the same ad for an iphone 12 times, goes to apple store, listens to the salesperson, tries it out, and buys item
learning
beth shows ___ behavior when she seems to know exact location in the grocery store for every item on her list
behavioral learning
___ is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it
reinforcement
chris goes to starbucks every morning and plans to go today because he's never been disappointed with his purchase. according to behavioral learning theory, the reward he gets from enjoying his purchase is called ___
stimulus generalization
when marriot uses its name on a second line of hotels, courtyard by marriot hotels, it uses the behavioral learning theory called ___
cognitive
thinking, reasoning, and mental problem solving without direct experience are characteristics of ___ learning
cognitive
an ad for a security company cites various crime stats to make consumers aware of growth in home theft and how security systems impact the rate of victimization. the consumer looking at ad will have to use ___ learning in order to process the info
brand loyalty
the following are fundamental to ___:
-favorable attitude toward a single brand
-a consistent purchase behavior of single brand
attitude
___ is a learned disposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way
values, beliefs
attitudes toward products are shaped by our ___ and ___
true
TRUE OR FALSE; some attitudes are enduring and stable within a culture
attitudes
when pepsi stamped freshness dates on its cans it added an attribute in the consumer's mind that changed ___ toward Pepsi and colas in general
lifestyles
marketing mngrs often appeal to consumer's ___ when developing the marketing mix to be sure it fits with how they spend their time and money
lifestyles
psychographics is considered to be a measure of consumers' ___
VALS
___ is the prominent psychographic system in which consumers are segmented according to their primary motivations for buyer and their resources
self-expression, ideals, achievement
3 primary motivations for buying and having products according to the VALS system
word of mouth, social class, reference group
3 sociocultural influences that affect the consumer's behavior
opinion leaders
using the influence of ___ is using a celebrity spokesperson in order to sell a product
word of mouth
___ is influencing people during conversation, in either positive or negative ways
reference group
the following are examples of a ___ that might influence a buyer's choices and behaviors: family, classmates, sorority sisters
dissociative, membership, and aspiration groups
what are the 3 types of reference groups with clear implications for marketers?
consumer socialization
following process is an example of ___:
time, inc. publishes a kid's version of sports illustrated in an attempt to influence today's children to purchase SI when they are adults
family
___ is one of the most substantial influences on buyer behaviors and attitudes
family
___ is the smallest, most immediate reference group with whom one learns how to use consumer products and services and the brands they often continue to use for life
user, buyer
a problem in family decision roles; sometimes the __ is not the ___
social class
___: a relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped
attitudes and values
what are 2 characteristics that are central to defining culture?
hispanic, african american, asian american
the 3 largest racial/ethnic subcultures in the united states are:
Hispanics
___ comprise the largest racial/ethnic subculture today, in terms of pop. and spending power in the US
African Americans
though the groups are similar in many ways, ___ spend far more than Caucasians on boy's clothing, rental goods, and audio equipment
Asian Americans
which subculture is characterized by hard work, strong family ties, appreciation for education, and median family incomes exceeding those of any other ethnic group?
situational
when best buy color coded their aisles, they modified the physical surroundings of their stores which is a ___ influence on the purchase decision process
need
best buy's customer-centric model is focused on understanding customer __
Jill
when best buy redesigned its store by using gentler colors and softer music, it was trying to appeal to which customer segment it had identified
brand loyalty
to increase __ among female consumers, best buy implemented the personal shopping assistant to personalize the shopping experience as much as possible
consumer behavior
best buy identified dramatic differences in the ___ between male and female electronics shoppers and modified some of their stores to capitalize on those differences
business
___ marketing refers to marketing of goods and services to orgs for use in the creation of goods and services that they can product and market to others
organizational buyers
___ buy goods and services for 2 reasons:
-for their own use in a business function
-for resale
industrial, reseller, government markets
what are the 3 categories of organizational buyers?
industrial
burt's bees buys raw materials in order to reprocess them into finished products such as perfume and hair products. what org. market best describes burts bees?
industrial
public utilities and mining companies could be considered part of the ___ market
reseller
retailers and wholesalers are org. buyers that are part of the __ market
resellers
examples of ____
wholesalers
distributers
retailers
organizational
many government agencies can act as ___ buyers by purchasing products from other organizations
globally
organizational buyers are important ___
organizational, ultimate
international stats show that the largest exporting industries in the US focus on ___ buyers instead of ___ consumers
NAICS-coded information
ways that businesses might use ___
-study market share
-determine the classification of current customers
-study demand for products
SIC
the ___ was replaced by the NAICS since the former neither permitted comparability of industries across countries nor accurately measured new or emerging industries
6
the NAICS code for a specific US industry like the cellular telecom industry has __ digits
code, current, lists, similar
one way the NAICS classification system is useful to business marketers is that it allows the firm to find the NAICS ___ for ___ customers and then obtain NAICS ___ for ___ customers
derived demand
___ means that the demand for industrial products and services is driven by demand for consumer products and services
larger
the typical purchase involved in an organizational buying exchange is ___ in size than in consumer buying
fewer
firms selling to org. buyers have far ___ potential customers compared to firms selling to customers
profitability
the main reason that business organizations buy products is to increase ___
environmental, minority, women
many companies have added new objectives in their organizational buying decisions including the following:
- including ___ initiatives
- emphasizing buying from ___ and ___ owned suppliers
organizational buying, business buyers
evaluative criteria in the consumer decision process are most similar to ___ criteria for __
organizational buying
the following are commonly used ___ criteria:
price
ability to meet delivery schedules
past performance on contracts
quality, products
an organizational buyer that requires ISO 9000 certification of its suppliers benefits from confidence in the consistent ___ of its supplier's ___
supplier development
___: the deliberate effort by organizational buyers to build relationships that shape supplier's products and capabilities to fit a buyer's needs
complex negotiations
___ is more likely to occur in organizational buying than for consumer buying
reciprocity
___: the industrial buying practice in which 2 organizations agree to purchase each other's products
supply partnership
a ___ lowers costs and increases value or products through the adoption of mutually beneficial objectives, policies, and procedures between buyers and sellers
buying center
in a ___, the buy-class situation affects the number of ppl involved in the center
buying center
a ___ consists of several individuals with common goals and knowledge pertaining to purchase decisions
buying center
an employee from another functional area and the purchasing manager are likely to participate in an org's ___
users, influencers, buyers, deciders, gatekeepers
what are the 5 roles within a buying center?
user
a secretary who requests a new printer to speed up his work most likely has what role in the buying center?
buyer
if you have been selected to view a new golf club to be sold at your company and you both agree to the product specs. and negotiate the terms of the purchase agreements, you are the __
influence
depending on the product, there may be a person who acts as an ___ in the buying center, often by providing specs for the product being purchased or the vendor being considered
decider
for important non-routine purchases, the person with formal authority to approve the supplier is the ___, often someone in a specific functional area
decider
the ___ role is sometimes fulfilled by the buyer in the buying center, but sometimes is done by someone else for important technical purchases
gatekeeper
the ___ controls the flow of info and may prevent it from reaching other members of the buying center
new buys, straight rebuys, modified rebuys
what are the 3 buy classes in organizational buying?
new buy
the following are typical in a ___ buying situation:
lengthy decision time
buying center includes more people
straight rebuy
a ___ occurs when an organizational buyer simply reorders additional units of products with no changes from an approved supplier
modified rebuy
a ___ occurs when an organizational buyer has purchased a similar product in the past but has decided to change something like the specs, price, or supplier
new buy
___ buying situation: the biggest buying center
straight rebuy
___ buying situation: shortest decision time
modified rebuy
___ buying situation: minor changes to an existing order
similar
organizational buying behavior is ___ to consumer purchase decision process
problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, postpurchase behavior
list the 5 stages (in order) of both consumer and organizational purchase decisions
organizational buying decision process, consumer
the following are more true of the ___ as compared to the ___ one:
-more individuals are involved in the decision
-supplier capability becomes more important
problem recognition
after a contract is won, firms often face a make-buy decision which determines whether components will be purchased externally or built internally. the make-buy decision occurs during the ___ stage of the org purchase decision process
make-buy decision
___: a choice between purchasing from outside or making the product itself
value analysis
___: the systematic appraisal of the design, quality, and performance of a product in order to reduce purchasing costs
price
in the alternative evaluation stage of the org. purchase decision process, Siemens considers a variety of criteria for component suppliers for its machine vision systems. which of the following is the LEAST cited as important for selection
-ease of use
-technical support
-price
-performance
bidder's list
___: a list of firms believed to be qualified to supply a given item to an organizational buyer
contracts, suppliers
in the purchase decision stage of the organizational buying decision process, the firm awards __ to chosen ___
longer
the purchase stage is ___ in the organizational buying decision process than it is for consumers
organizational, formally
both businesses and consumers perform some kind of evaluation of their purchases after they are complete, but ___ buys are examined more ___
organizational
both consumers and organizational buyers purchase products online but a much larger percentage of the total dollars sold online are ___ transactions
internet
because it improves timeliness of supplier info and reduces both order processing and marketing costs, ___ buying is popular in all 3 kinds of organizational markets
e-marketplaces
independent trading communities and private exchanges provide trading platforms for orgs and are examples of ____
independent e-marketplace
an independent e-marketplace differs from a private exchange because ______ acts as neutral third parties for buyers and sellers
traditional auction
in a ___, the winner is the buyer with the highest bid
reverse auction
in a ___, there are many suppliers involved and buyers benefit from the lower prices generated from this type of auction
reverse auction
reasons that a supplier might not like a ___:
-overemphasizes price as a buying criteria
-threatens supply partnership opportunities
marketing research
___: the process of defining a marketing program and opportunity, systematically collecting and analyzing info, and recommending actions
recommending action, collecting data, and analyzing data
marketing research includes:
research
film studios may use the result of marketing ___ to change movie titles, aspects of some of the characters, or even the ending of the film
purchase behavior, personal information
2 of the biggest challenges in conducting good marketing research:
-consumers' stated intentions may not match their actual ___
-consumers may not be willing to reveal ___
decisions they must make
while in college, students choose between alternative courses in which to enroll, which is an example of what?
define the problem, develop the research plan, collect relevant info, develop findings, take marketing actions
what are the 5 steps in the marketing research process? (in order)
identifying possible marketing actions, setting the research objectives
what are the 2 key elements of defining the problem in the marketing research approach?
research objectives
___ are specific,measurable goals the decision maker seeks to achieve in conducting the marketing research
feedback
the marketing research process includes 5 steps in addition to ___ that allows researchers to learn lessons that will improve future attempts
research objectives
GE determined it costs $150 per indepth interview, while a survey costs $2 per questionaire. it is most important for the company to choose the appropriate method based on ___
exploratory
__ research provides ideas about a relatively vague problem
descriptive
___ research generally involves trying to find the frequency that something occurs or the extent of a relationship between two factors
casual
___ research involves finding the extent that changing one factor will change another
measures of success
___: criteria or standards used in evaluating proposed solution to the problem
useless, resources
if all the research outcomes lead to the same marketing action, the marketing research is ___ and a waste of ___
broad, narrow
what are 2 problems that should be avoided in defining a marketing problem in the process to increase the probability of successful marketing research efforts? Objectives that are too ___ or too ___
constraints, data
the 2nd step in the marketing research project involves developing the research plan. this includes specifying the ___ for the research activity, and identification of the __ needed for marketing decisions
constraint
a ___ in a decision is a restriction placed on potential solutions to a problem, such as a limit on time or money
relevant , marketing
what characteristic is most important in IDing which data to collect for marketing research? data that is ___ to decisions for ___ actions
concepts and methods
what are the 2 key elements in deciding how to collect data for marketing research?
new-product concept
____: a picture or verbal description of a product or service the firm might offer for sale
methods
___: the approaches that can be used to collect data to solve all or part of a problem
sampling
___: a technique used to select a group of customers, distributors, or prospects
statistical inference
___: a subsequent generalization of the results from a sample to a larger group to help decide on marketing actions
data
___: facts and figures related to the research problem
secondary data
___ are facts and figures that have already been recorded before the project at hand
primary data
___ are facts and figures that are newly collected for the project
time, cost
an org may start a new marketing research study by examining internal secondary data like customer complaints primarily because using this info can result in ___ and ___ savings
internal secondary
though data collected at register in grocery store is originally used for sales and inventory records, this data can later be used to study how customers shop. this latter use is an example of __ data
characteristics, trends, ultimate
the US census bureau publishes reports that contain detailed info on American households, and marketers use this data to identify ___ and ___ of ___ consumers
syndicated
marketers can purchase a standard set of __ data on a regular basis from providers like Nielsen media research (for TV ratings) or JD power (for automobile quality and customer satisfaction)
time savings, low cost
2 main reasons marketers prefer to obtain secondary data first?
specific
a disadvantage of secondary data is that is may not be ___ enough
outdated, once
census 2010's biggest disadvantage is that data may be ___ since its collected ___ every 10 years
primary
in many cases, the info researchers need is only available through ___ data, since data collected for another purpose may be outdated, incorrectly categorized, or not specific enough
asking people questions and observing people
marketers collect primary data using which 2 methods?
observational
___ data are facts and figures obtained by watching, either mechanically or in person, how people actually behave
mechanical
the following is a ___ method for collecting observational data:
Nielson's "people meter" attached to TVs to measure TV ratings
personal
the following are examples of ___ methods for collecting observational data:
-ethnographic studies of consumers in their natural environments
-mystery shoppers who check a company's customer service
personal observation
different observers reporting different conclusions when watching the same event may indicate unreliability in what type of data collection?
questionnaire data
__: facts and figures obtained by asking ppl about their attitudes, awareness, intentions, and behaviors
individual interview
the ability to probe with additional questions is a benefit of using the __ to collect data
focus groups, individual interviews, in-depth interviews, trend hunting
list 4 research methods used to generate new ideas
depth interview
___: a technique in which researchers ask lengthy, free-flowing questions to probe for underlying ideas and feelings
focus group
__: small group put together for an informal discussion
questionaires
the following are essential in the design of all research using ___:
-questions that get clear, unambiguous answers
-precise, efficient questions
semantic differential scale
question type: describe the extent to which Dell provides products that are Reliable ----Unreliable
Likert scale
question type: Dell provides products that are reliable. Strongly agree----strongly disagree
dichotomous
question type: dell provides products that are reliable. Yes or No
open-ended
characteristics of ___ questions:
-captures "voice" of respondent
-good for idea generation about product benefits and advertising
should, segmentation, targeting
researchers ___ should collect personal info on questionnaires meant for marketing purposes because it is useful for __ and __ purposes
non-mutually exclusive
the following is an example of a survey question with ___ answers:
how much would you pay for this 8 oz ice cream?
-less than 2
-2-3
-3 or more
mined, trends
marketing researchers are interested in social networks and other consumer-generated online content because they are a source of data to be __ to spot __
panels
market researchers may use ___ for their research bc they want to know about consumers' behavior over time
panels
a disadvantage of using __ for marketing research:
they require continuous and complex recruitment of new individuals to replace drop-outs
mechanical
a meter installed on a computer that records internet user behavior by tracking actual mouse clicks is what type of method for collecting observational data?
dichotomous
characteristics of a ___ question:
-a yes or no question
-type of closed-end of fixed alternative question
panel
__; a sample of consumers or stores from which researchers take a series of measurements over time
experiement
characteristics of an __ in research
-considered casual research
-require tightly controlled conditions
-involve manipulating variables to see the effect on another variable
experiment
a test market is an example of a __
warehouse
when firms collect customer info and sales history, it is stored in a data __ where it can be accessed later with queries
sensitivity analysis
querying one's database with "what if" questions to determine how a hypothetical change might affect sales
data mining
__ is the extraction of hidden info from large databases to find statistical links between consumer purchasing patterns and marketing actions
analyzing data, presenting findings
2 things included in step 4 (developing findings) of the marketing research approach
make action recommendations, implement action recommendations, evaluate results
what are the parts of the 5th step (take marketing actions) in the marketing research approach from first to last
product differentiation
the __ strategy involves a firm using different marketing mix activities to help consumers perceive the product as being different and better than competing products
purchase funnel, loyalty look, goal setting, maslow's hierarachy
what are the 4 frameworks that can be used to understand how customers decision processes are influenced?
problem recognition, info search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, postpurchase behavior
5 steps of purchase decision process
goal setting, formation of a goal intention, action planning, action initiation and control, goal attainment/failure
5 stages of goal setting
subordinate, focal, superordinate goal
3 levels of goal hierarchy
physiological, safety, social, personal, self-actualization
5 levels of maslows hierarchy
involvement, loss aversion, options, priming, attitude change, personality/lifestyle/values
6 phychological factors