120 terms


Who was king during the time of the French Revolution?
King Louis XVI
What were some of the problems France faced during the time of the French Revolution?
It had an incompetent ruler (King Louis XVI); its treasury had been bankrupted by costly foreign wars (American Revolution); its ability to raise revenues to pay down its debts was hampered by a tax system that exempted the wealthiest two classes (the clergy or First Estate and the nobility or Second Estate) and the burden of taxation fell on the peasants and bourgeoisi
What was the major problem of France?
Tax system
What was the Estates General?
An assembly of delegates from all three estates that could restrict the king's power and only it could change the tax system
What did each class seek in the Estates General?
Nobles wanted to gain greater role in governance in exchange for losing their tax exemption; the Third Estate's leaders wanted more authority but sought a written constitution that would guarantee the political participation of all the people
Where did the Estates Genera assemble?
What was the problem with the traditional ways of the Estates General?
The Third Estate (constituting 98 percent of the population) had only half the delegates and the estates met separately, so the Third Estate could easily be outvoted 2 to 1
What was the result of King Louis XVI wavering when the Third Estate delegates protested the traditional system of meetings?
The Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly of France and invited the other two Estates to join
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
Assembly delegates crossed the street to an indoor tennis court and and vowed not to go home until France had a written constitution
What was the result of the Tennis Court Oath?
King Louis XVI appeared to give in and ordered all three estates to meet together as one (but his order was only a delaying tactic and during the next two weeks he summoned loyal soldiers from outlying areas to Versailles to disperse the Assembly)
What was the Bastille?
Prison that was a large medieval fortress where guns were supposedly stored; rioters, to protect the Assembly and themselves, sacked the prison and stole guns
What happened when King Louis XVI heard of Bastille's fall?
He assumed that a mob big enough and well-armed enough to seize such a fortress could easily overwhelm his troops, he came to Paris on July 17 and endorsed what was now called the French Revolution (the end of absolutism and its replacement by a governor in which power would be shared between the king and the National Assembly
What was the result of King Louis XVI endorsing the French Revolution/
The Assembly formally abolished all class privileges and issued a Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (Men are born and remain free and equal in rights....NOTHING TALKED ABOUT WOMEN RIGHTS)
What was the result of the Assembly issuing a Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
King Louis XVI, considering these developments far too radical, ordered troops to Versailles
What was the result of King Louis XVI ordering troops to Versailles?
Paris reacted violently and six thousand women marched seven miles to Versailles to confront the king (The March of the Women)
What did the March of Women force the king and his royal family to do?
Move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris where he was kept under house arrest to stop him from trying to reverse the revolution (many nobles angry about losing their status fled the country and plotted against the revolution from abroad)
What were the three problems the National Assembly had to face during the French Revolution?
France's financial crisis; the opposition of many Catholic clergy; resistance of a treacherous king
What did the National Assembly do to solve France's immense debt?
Since land was the main source of wealth in France, the Assembly confiscated the property of nobles who had fled the country and all the land used by the Catholic Church for nonreligious purposes (aim was to auction these lands and use the proceeds to pay France's debts while also creating a class of small landowners who would have a stake in supporting the new government); selling so much land would take years, so in the meantime the assembly issued bonds called assignats (could be used as money and redeemed after the lands were sold)
What was the result of the Assembly issuing assignats?
Because they increased the amount of money in circulation runaway inflation incurred (money declines in value and prices of goods and services rise)
How did the Assembly deal with the clergy after taking the Church's income-producing property?
They made the clergy civil servants with salaries paid by the government, ensuring their financial well-being but also requiring them to swear an oath of allegiance to the state (Church split into friends and enemies of the revolution)
What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen designed to do?
Safeguard the liberties of the French people against arbitrary actions by the executive power
How did the Assembly-issued French constitution affect the king?
It gave the king an absolute veto and the power to appoint ministers and conduct diplomacy; forced king to share power with an elected Legislative Assembly (a strong, clever king could have dominated such a government but Louis XVI was neither strong nor clever so he escaped tot he lands of the HRE, brother of his queen)
What happened on June 1791 when the king, queen, and their two children fled Paris under cover of darkness/
Because Louis was identifiable from his images on French money and since he insisted on stopping at a place where he could sleep on a feather pillow, he was recognized and arrested about 20 miles from the border and returned to Paris
How did Louis XVI attempting to flee France prove disastrous for the Constitution of 1791?
People realized France was a constitutional monarchy ruled by a king who opposed the constitution and, fearing that other monarchs might invade France to stop the spread of revolution before it reached their countries, the Legislative Assembly called for war against Austria and Prussia (Louis approved hoping for a French defeat that would restore him to absolute power)
How did France do initially in the war against Austria?
Beset by inexperienced leadership (many of its former officers were nobles who had fled the country) France's army first fought poorly
How did people interpret France initially losing the war against Austria and Prussia?
They interpreted the French defeats as a sign that Louis was conspiring with the enemy, so radical workers in Paris stormed the Tuileries Palace,almost killing the king and his family (Louis survived but a search of his apartments revealed that he had been collaborating with France's foes) THIS DISCOVERY DEALT A DEATHBLOW TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
What did the Assembly do after they discovered King Louis XVI had been collaborating with France's foes?
Summoned a National Convention to meet in September to draft a new constitution, formally abolishing the monarch (the Convention moved to put Louis on trial for treason (French armies finally halted the Austrians and Prussians well inside France's borders, giving the Convention time to try the king)
How did Louis XVI's trial reflect the new governance concepts embodied in the Enlightenment and American Revolution?
Under the old concepts, the people served the king, who was thus considered incapable of treason because that crime was defined as "an act against the king"; under the new concepts, the government served the people, whom Louis had betrayed by conspiring with France's enemies (the only real suspense involved the method of punishment)
What was the most notable committee formed after France renounced one-person rule?
Commitee of Public Safety, a group of official given broad powers to protect France from enemies foreign and domestic. Initially I was led by moderates, who failed to deal forcefully with these foes, but soon it was under the control of an outspoken radical named Maximilien Robsepierre.
How did the Committee deal with foreign foes?
It enacted a levee en mass, calling the whole country into service
What was the result of the Committee enacting a levee en mass?
It created a new type of army: untrained and inexperienced, but huge and enthusiastic (dwarfed the small, professional armies of France's enemies); drafted many talented men who would not otherwise have enlisted, providing effective officers to replace the nobles who fled (these forces later drove the forces of Austria and Prussia out of France)
How did the Committee deal with internal foes?
Established revolutionary tribunals to try anyone suspected of being an enemy of the revolution; before long the tribunals were committing a Reign of Terror, condemning thousands to the guillotine (CALLED THE NATIONAL RAZOR)
What was Thermidor?
July, the month of heat
What happened when the Reign of Terror outlived its usefulness?
Robespierre was denounced by the Convention and sent to the guillotine
What followed the execution of Robespierre?
A Thermidorian Reaction followed with conservative elements hunting down and killing his supporters (This was the Revolution's most radical phase)
Along with the political upheavals, what did the French Revolution also involve?
The social rebellion: a struggle by the common people to transform French society, historically structured unequally. To achieve "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," the rallying cry of the Revolution, the lower classes fought to destroy noble power and privilege, a struggle that proved difficult and bloody.
What did the lower classes demonstrate when they seized the Bastille?
That a determined mob could overcome the power of the king.
What did the peasants do after the fall of Bastille occurred?
Rose in revolt across rural France, burning the records of noble class privileges and sometimes the manors
What did the Middle Class do during the French Revolution?
Determined to destroy class privilege they seized control of provincial city governments and the Women's March to Versailles showed that even poor urban women could force change by taking revolutionary action.
Who were the Sans-Culottes?
The urban working poor
What did revolutionary leaders do when they saw the danger of defying the masses?
They hastened to show solidarity with the Sans-Culottes.
What was the result of foreign armies nearing Paris?
The sans-culottes arose to arrest the king and install a more radical government. An inflation then ravaged France and food grew scarce under wartime conditions, which they blamed on conspirators and traitors. The sans-culotte cried out for vengeance and the Committee of Public Safety, determined to destroy France's inter committees, obliged the lower classes with the Reign of Terror
Yes or no: The lower classes were unanimous in demanding radical change.
What did Louis XVI's execution provoke?
A massive peasant uprising in western France, where Catholic farmers were appalled at the murder of a ruler they regarded as anointed by God; many of the Reign of Terror's worst atrocities, including the mass butchery of captured peasant rebels, were committed in response by revolutionary soldiers, told by their leaders that the rebellious peasants were subversives and foreign agents
____ended the Reign of Terror.
Thermidorian Reaction
What caused the National Convention to disperse?
Rampant inflation sparked a working-class uprising in Paris (a new two-house legislature subsequently chose a five-man Directory to run the country
What did the Directory seek to do?
Hampered by weakness and corruption, the Directory sought to unite France against its foreign foes (which now included Britain and Spain, which had joined Austria and Prussia against France)
What country was Napoleon Bonaparte born in?
What did Napoleon do after he seized northern Italy from Austria control?
He created three northern Italian republics under French puppet regimes, exceeding his authority and alarming the Directory
How did Napoleon propose invading Britain?
He decided that France lacked the naval power to invade through the English Channel, so he proposed invading Egypt as the first step toward the eventual French invasion of British India
What science did Napoleon help advance and what was it?
Egyptology, archaeologists accompanying Napoleon discovered what came to be known as the Rosetta Stone
What occurred when Napoleon's army was stranded by British Admiral Horatio Nelson?
With escape impossible, the next year Napoleon abandoned his troops, riding horseback across North Africa and eventually sailing for France
What happened when Napoleon returned to France?
Because the news of his Egypt invasion was just reaching them, he received a hero's welcome. Though the Directory was furious, they lost their power soon after from conspirators seeking a stronger government
What new executive body did the conspirators form after overthrowing the Directory?
The Consulate, a three-person body which Napoleon dominated as First Consul
What did the Consulate aim to do?
Restore order, preserve the revolution's reforms, and defeat France's enemies
What were some of the changes Napoleon made after he became first Consul?
Napoleon defeated the anti-French coalition, forcing England to make peace; eased the financial crisis by creating the Bank of France, a private corporation empowered to issue currency and regulate the amount of money in circulation (assignats were abolished and inflation controlled); affirmed the revolutionary land settlement, letting peasants keep lands acquired from nobles who had fled France, thereby winning the devoted support of the masses; created Napoleonic Code, a codification of French Law that ensured the integrity of private property while guaranteeing all male citizens equality before the law
How did Napoleon implement his changes after he was made First Consul?
Napoleon established a central bureaucracy, staffed by well-paid official who depended on him for their positions and promotions; created a new nobility based on merit instead of heredity, granting titles as rewards for service and opening careers to the most talented people
What did Napoleon do concerning the church?
He and the pope signed a Concordat, a treaty granting French Catholics freedom of worship; in return the Vatican recognized the French clergy's status as civil servants (Church was enlisted in service to the state)
How did Napoleon subvert the revolution's democratic spirit?
He never stood for election, instead asking voters to approve his actions in votes held after the fact; disregarded Frances elected assemblies; disdained free speech and free press
Yes or No: Women played a crucial role in the French Revolution?
What was the date of the Bastile?
July 14, 1789
What was the First Estate?
Roman Catholic clergy (less than 1% of population, owned more than 10% of land)
What was the Second Estate?
Nobility (less than 2%, owned vast majority of land, and comprised military)
The Old Regime of France was organized into...
3 major states
How did the Napoleonic Code affect women?
Increased subjugation of women, depriving them of the right to own property, execute written agreements, and maintain bank account (restrictions that endured in France until the 20th century)
Did Haiti's independence have an impact on Haiti?
France after Napoleon was First Consul for five years controlled what countries?
Netherlands and Germany east of the Rhine River
How did the other countries react after Napoleon appointed himself Emperor of France?
Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Britain formed a new coalition against him (Britain beat France at sea, but no one could figure out how to beat Napoleon on land)
What was the Continental System and why was it created?
Napoleon turned to commercial warfare and, hoping to undermine Britain's economy by cutting off its commerce, created a Europe-wide boycott of British goods by countries under French influence (British smugglers evaded the boycott though and Britain managed to gain new markets in Latin America following Napoleon's stupid invasion of Portugal and Spain
How did Britain take advantage of Napoleon's Spanish blunder?
It shipped goods to Spanish America, capturing the markets abandoned by Spain because of the war at home, helping Britain survive the Continental System; sent troops to help Spain's guerrillas fight the French, tying down Napoleon's best troops in a drawn out conflict
What did Napoleon do once he was convinced his Spanish invasion was only a minor annoyance?
He turned to domestic matters, divorcing his wife Josephine, with whom he had no children, and marrying Maria Louisa von Habsburg, daughter of the Austrian Emperor (marriage was designed to build ties between Austria and France and give Napoleon an heir, later title "King of Rome"
What happened just as the Bonaparte dynasty seemed secure?
Russia reoponed its ports to British trade (Tsar Alexander was upset that Napoleon had spurned a Russian candidate for marriage and troubled by the Continental System's damage to Russia' economy, as Britain had been Russia's main trading partner)
What were the problems with Napoleon's Grand Army that invaded Russia?
More than 200 thousand seasoned French troops were tied down fighting in Spain, so Napoleon had to draft 2/3 of his soldiers from his satellite nations throughout Europe; the soldiers were reluctant to lay down their lives for France, and so many eventually deserted; Russian generals disobeyed orders to fight Napoleon's massive army and instead retreated into Russia's interior, which would not have happened if the Grand Army had been smaller
Who was the Congress of Vienna directed by?
Austria's foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich
What three principles did the Congress of Vienna base its deliberations on?
Legitimacy (reactionaries wanted to go back to how things were before France); compensation (the reimbursement of nations that had sacrificed lives and resources to defeat Napoleon); balance of power/security (an effort to produce a situation in which no one nation would be strong enough to impose its will on the others or to dominate Europe as France had under Napoleon, creating a secure boarder system around europe)
What comprised the Third Estate?
Bourgeoisie (middle class); city workers; peasants (vast majority and paid tithes and taxes)
Who was Emanuel Joseph Sieyets and what was his quote?
Member of the 1st Estate who said "what is the 3rd Estate? Everything. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something"
Why did King Louis XVI call the Estates General and invite members of all 3 Estates?
He was in desperate need of taxes
Yes or No: King Louis XVI was the first person to call the Estates General
No (it was called 175 years prior)
What did the Third Estate make different when they created the National Assembly?
Made vote proportional to number of people, not which estate (felt they had natural rights)
How did the American Revolution affect the French Revolution?
It served as the inspiration so that some people suddenly wanted to have a democratic France
What causes the Tennis Court Oath?
3rd Estate tries to go into Palace of Versailles but are locked out (King Louis XVI was holding secret meeting with 2 estates) so they go across street to indoor tennis court and swear they won't leave until France has a written constitution
What mistake does King Louis XVI do that leads to the Storming of Bastille?
He is afraid of the mob so he calls troops into Paris but people are upset by this and attack Bastille to get weapons
What is the Great Fear?
Massive peasant reolt
How did French revolutionaries distinguish themselves?
Wore red, white, and blue
Who was General Lafayette and what did he do?
Led and organized national guard for the revolutionaries (also led France's army in American Revolution)
What was the Declaration of Man?
Document created by members of revolutionary movement that was similar to Declaration of Independence (based on LIBERTY, EQUALITY, and FRATERNITY)
Yes or no: was the Declaration of Man a constitution?
Yes or no: was the declaration of man a result of the Tennis Court Oath.
Did the Declaration of Man create a new government?
Who was Olympe de Gouges and what did she do?
French playright who made Declaration of Women and dedicated it to Marie Antoinette
Who was Marie Antoinette?
Austrian wife of Louis XVI who said "let them eat cake"
What happens after the Women's March on Versailles?
Legislative assembly is created and organized in 3 branches (only male property owner can vote) that maintains the king in a limited monarchy (but some minority want to have a democracy)
How does left wing and right wing come from?
Legislative assembly liberals sat in the left wing and conservatives sat in right wing
What happens after the Austrians and Prussians invade France?
France decides to have new legislative organization called National Convention (every male could vote-UNIVERSAL MANHOOD SUFFRAGE)
What were the different factions in the National Convention?
Girondists (conservatives); Jacobins (radicals); sans-culottes (extreme radicals-wanted more rights and freedom)
About how many people were sent to the guillotine?
What faction rises into power under Maximilian Robespierre?
What does Maximilian Robsepierre want to do when he gains power?
Defend revolution through terror
Who said, "It's necessary to anihilate both the internal and external enemies of the republic"?
Maximilian Robespierre
Who said, "Liberty cannot be secured unless criminals lose their heads"?
Maximilian Robsepierre
Who said, "Europe is a molehill'?
ESSAY QUESTION: Why was France ideal for a revolution?
(working on the answer) France had huge debts; weak king; corrupt tax system;
Yes or no: Napoleon was part of the Directory
How was Napoleon successful in invading Italy?
He went through the Alps and surprised the austrians
What happened after Napoleon's Egypt conquest?
British navy devastated the France navy and trapped them on the island
What was the Concordat?
Treaty between France and Church where Catholics were granted religious freedom and the church provides services to France
What does Napoleon do that leads to his becoming emperor?
Reorganizes Europe through conquests; sends vote to people asking if they want him to be emperor
What was the Napoleonic Code aligned along?
Aligned along the lines of the Revolutionary thought (equality of men, protection of property, etc.)
What were the benefits of the Napoleonic Code?
Connected people controlled by France (everywhere under France followed this code); spread French nationalism (customs, ways, etc.)
What did Napoleon do for France?
Spread French nationalism and brought prosperity to France; created service based award system (NOBLES BECAME CIVIL SERVANTS); people (when rejecting French nationality) realized their own nationalities
What was the Continental System?
Nobody was allowed to trade with Britain (blockade)
Did the French use the draft?
Yes (they had able-bodied men who were unspecialized drafted into army)
How many troops did Napoleon invade Russia with?
What was the problem with the Grand Army's nationalities?
Many different leaders and troops spoke different languages so many translators were needed and they did not feel a strong desire to fight for France
What countries ally against France?
Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain
Napoleon is finally defeated at ____and sent to ___
Waterloo, St. Helena
Napoleon is sent to ___ in exile
What was the next major conflict after the Council of Vienna and how long after the councile of vienna did it occur?
World War I, 100 years later
What was the Concert of Europe/Congress system?
The balance of power that existed in Europe between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) until the outbreak of the First World War (the time period was known as the Age of Matternich)