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American History

American History
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By the 1770s which of the following issues helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority?
trade restrictions
At the time of European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at
500
The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they
brought back news of valuable far eastern spices, drugs, and silk
After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had
sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies
European contact with Native Americans led to
The deaths of millions of native americans who had little resisitance to European diseases
Within a century after Columbus's landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly
90%
The Aztec chief Moctezuma allowed Cortes to enter the capital city of Tenochtitlan because
Montezuma believed Cortes was Quetzocoatl
Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to
Protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France
The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in
the growth of capitalism
European explorers introduced _____ to the new world
smallpox
Columbus called the native people of the new world indians because
he believed he had skirted the Indies
The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was the most important for the future United States was
Jamestown
The English treatment of the Irish can be described as
violent and unjust
Spain's dreams of empire began to fade with the
defeat of the spanish Armada
The financial means for England's first permanent colonization in America were provided by
a joint-stock company
The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by
starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids
Despite an abundance of fish and game, early Jamestown settlers continued to starve because
they were unaccustomed to fend for themselves and wasted their time looking for gold
Captain John Smith's role at Jamestown can best be described as
saving the colony from collapse
The biggest disrupter of Native American life was
disease
The summoning of Virginia's House of Burgesses marked an important precedent because it
was the first of many miniature parliaments to convene in America
A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony in 1634 was to
create a safe haven for the Catholics
In 1649 Maryland's Act of Toleration
guaranteed toleration to all Christians
Under the Barbados slave code of 1661, slaves were
denied the most fundamental rights
Some Africans became especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas because they
were experienced in rice cultivation
The inhabitants of North Carolina were regarded by their neighbors as
outcasts and irreligious
The colony of Georgia was founded
as a defensive buffer for the valuable Carolinas
King James I opposed the separasists who wanted to break away entirely from the church of England because he
realized that if his subjects could defy him as their spiritual leader, they could defy him as their political leader
The separatists migrated from Holland to the New World in order to
avoid the Dutchification of their children
The mayflower Compact can be described as
a promising step toward genuine self-government
Unlike Separatists, the Puritans
remained members of the Church of England
Among the Puritans, it was understood that
the purpose of government was to enforce God's laws
As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams
established complete religious freedom for all
As a colony, Rhode Island became known for
individualist and independent attitudes
The city of New Haven was settled by
Puritans
After the Pequot War, Puritans efforts to convert Indians to Christianity can best be described as
feeble, not equaling that of the Spanish or the French
King Philip's War resulted in
the lasting defeat of New England's Indians
The New England Confederation
was designed to bolster colonial defense
As a result of England's Glorious Revolution
the Dominion of the New World collapsed
New York was
originally founded by the Dutch
Pennsylvania
the best advertised
One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England was
their refusal to do military service
The population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the seventeenth century was notable for its
scarcity of women
In the seventeenth century, due to a high death rate families were both few and fragile in
the Chesapeake colonies
The "headright" system, which made some people very wealthy, consisted of
giving the right to acquire fifty acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer to America
Seventeenth-century colonial tobacco growers usually respond to depressed prices for their crop by
growing more tobacco to increase the volume of production
Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century came as
indentured servants
By the end of the seventeenth century, indentured servants who gained their freedom
had little choice but to hire themselves out for low wages to their former masters
Bacon's rebellion was supported mainly by
young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land
The majority of African slaves coming to the New World
were delivered to South America and the West Indies
Many of the slaves who reached North America
were originally captured by African coastal tribes
For those Africans who were sold into slavery, the middle passage" can be best described as
the gruesome ocean voyage to America
The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in
South Carolina
Most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South were
land owning small farmers
It was typical of colonial New England adults to
marry early and have several children
The New England economy depended heavily on
fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce
In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England
had a more diversified economy
One feature to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was their
rapidly growing populations
The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly to
The natural fertility of all Americans
The average age of the American colonists in 1775 was
16
By the end of the 1700s, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of the colonies?
90%
The most honored profession in early colonial society was
ministry
The least honored profession in early colonial society was
medicine
The leading industry in the American colonies was
Agriculture
The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry
involved the trading of rum for African slaves
When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733, it was intended the act to
inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies
Transportation in colonial America was
slow by any of the means available
Colonial American taverns were all of the following except
frequented mainly by the lower class
By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was
less fervid than when the colonies were established
The Great Awakening
undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies, split colonial churches into several competing denominations, led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges, and was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people
The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as
reserved for the aristocratic few
The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because
it pointed the way to open public discussion
The one valuable resource in New France was
beavers
The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was
fur trapping
The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the
use of primitive guerilla warfare
The war of Jenkin's Ear was
confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia
New England colonists were outraged when British diplomats returned_________to France in 1748
Louisbourg
The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of
the Ohio River Valley
The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to
link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley
In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington
was defeated at Frot Necessity but was allowed to retreat
The Seven Years' war was also known in America as
The French and Indian War
When the Acadians left Canada, they went to
Louisiana
With the British and American victory in the Seven Years' war
a new spirit of independence arose, as the french threat disappeared
In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763
American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation
The Proclamation of 1763
prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because
the Indians were in a precarious position
During the Seven Years' War
British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials
When it came to the revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were
reluctant revolutionaries
The american colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on
the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good
Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government
depended on the virtue of its citizenry
The radical whigs feared
the arbitrary power of the monarchy
Mercantilists believed that
a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury
The first Navigation Laws were designed to
eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade
The British Crown's royal veto of colonial legislation
was used sparingly by the British Parliament
Before 1763 the Navigation Laws
were only loosely enforced in the American colonies
A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when _________ assumed charge of colonial policy
George Grenville
The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the
Sugar Act
The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to
raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense
Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because
Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists
"Virtual" representation meant that
every member of Parliament represented all British subjects
The tax on tea was retained when the Townshed Acts were repealed because
it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation
The First Continental Congress
called for a complete boycott of British goods
When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775,
there was no well-defined sentiment for independence
George Washington's selection to lead the colonial army was
largely political
The colonial army evnetually lost the Battle of Bunker Hill because its troops were
short of gunpowder
One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to
explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted
In a republic, power
comes from the people themselves
Thomas Paine argued that all government officials
should derive their authority from popular consent
When America became a republic and political power no longer rested with an all-powerful king
individuals needed to sacrifice their own self-interest to the public good
Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled__________or____________ and the independence seeking Patriots were also known as________
loyalists, tories, whigs
Which of the following fates befell Loyalists after the Revoultionary War
Some fled to England, Some re-established themselves in America, Some had their property confiscated, and some were exiled
Loyalists were least numerous in
New England
The basic strategy of the British in 1777 was to try to
isolate New England
America's first entangling alliamce was with
France
Shortly after French troops arrived in America, the resulting improvement in morale staggered when
General Benedict Arnold turned traitor
During the Revolution, the frontier saw much fighting, which
failed to stem the tide of westward-moving pioneers
After the British defeat at Yorktown
the fighting continued for more than a year
The world's first antislavery society was founded by
Quakers in Philadelphia
As part of the egalitarian movement of the American Revolution
several northern states abolished slavery
The Founding Fathers failed to eliminate slavery because
a fight over slavery might destroy national unity
The struggle for divorce between religion and government proved fiercest in
Virginia
As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward
to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports
One reason that the United States avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that
cheap land was easily available
It was highly significant to the course of future events that
economic democracy preceded political democracy in the United States
The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was
probably worse than before the war
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when
all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government
The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to
enforce a tax-collection program
Shays's Rebellion was provoked by
foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers
By the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789
prosperity was beginning to return
The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was
James Madison
The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on
the consent of the governed
Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the
absence of a bill of rights
When the new government was launched in 1789
the nation's population was doubling about every twenty-five years
The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a
cabinet
Despite the flourishing cities, America's population was still about________rural.
90%
One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it
did not provide guarantees for individual rights
One of the first jobs facing the new government formed under the Constitution was to
draw up and pass a bill of rights
As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to
bolster the national credit
Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt
was beneficial, because, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success
Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from
customs duties and excise tax
Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was
based on the "necessary and proper" or "elastic" clause in the Constitution
Hamilton's major programs seriously infringed on
states' rights
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government
levied an excise tax on whiskey
The Founding Fathers had not envisioned the existance of permanent political parties because they
saw opposition to the government as disloyal
The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scar on American political and social life is
The French Revolution
In Jay's Treaty, the British
promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest
John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain
created deeper splits between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following except
supporting high taxes
In the 1800 election Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because
Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the
South and West
As president, Thomas Jefferson's stand on several political issues that he had previously championed
was reversed
Thomas Jefferson's presidencey was characterized by his
moderation in the administration of public policy
On becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed
the excise tax on whiskey
Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams's last-minute appointment of new federal judges mainly because
it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government
The chief justice who carried out, the ideas of Alexander hamilton concerning a powerful federal government was
John Marshall
The legal precedent for judicial review was established when
the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
The case of Marbury v. Madison involved the question of who had the right to
declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
Thomas Jefferson distrusted large standing armies because they
could be used to establish a dictatorship
Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because
they could not march inland and endanger liberties
To guard American shores, Thomas Jefferson
constructed two hundred tiny gunboats
Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because
he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional
After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr
plotted to divide the United States
When the United States entered the War of 1812, it was
military unprepared
The preformance of the United States' navy in the War of 1812 could be best described as
much better than that of the army
America's campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was
poorly conceived because it split up the military
The British attack on Fort McHenry
inspired the writing of "The Star Spangled Banner"
The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the war of 1812 took place at the Battle of
New Orleans
The resolutions from the Hartford Convention
helped to cause the death of the Federalist party
The Rush-Bagot agreement
limited naval armaments on the great lakes
One of the most important by products of the War of 1812 was
a heightened spirit of nationalism
One of the nationally recognized American authors in the 1820s was
Washington Irving
At the end of the War of 1812, British manufacturers
began dumping their goods in America at extremely low prices
Henry Clay's call for federally funded rowads and canals received whole-hearted endorsement from
The west
New England opposed the American System's federally constructed roads because
they would drain away the needed population to the west
One of the major causes of the panic of 1819 was
overspeculation in frontier lands
As a result of the Missouri Compromise
slavery was banned north of 36* 30' in the Louisiana Purchase Territory
John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy" in
Mculloch v. Maryland