22 terms

Chapter 5 Sections 1-3

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Etruscans
People who inhabited early Italy. Their origins are unknown but it is known that the rules most of central Italy, including Rome.
Republic
It was a system of government originated by the Romans in which the people choose and elect officials. The Romans thought it was a way to prevent one individual from gaining too much power.
Patrician
Members of the landholding upper class. They were the members senate and controlled the government in Rome's republic.
Plebein
The were the middle class that made up most of the Roman population: farmers, merchants, and artisans. They had almost no influence but they did have the legal rights of citizens.
Consul
The two elected members from the patrician class who supervised the government and controlled the army in Ancient Rome.
Dictator
They were elected by the senate in the event of a war. This ruler one Rome has complete control over the government for the six months they were granted rule.
Tribune
The officials plebeians elected to help regulate their rights.
Veto
The power tribunes had to block the laws that violated the rights of plebeians.
Legion
In Rome, it was the basic military unit made up of 5,000 male citizen soldiers.
Imperialism
The establishment of control over foreign people and land. The Romans did this.
Latifundia
Huge farming estates owned by the wealthy.
Tiberius Gracchus
Brothers that were the first plebeians to be elected as tribunes. They attempted reforms that benefited the poor.
Julius Caesar
An ambitious military commander. He worked his way up in government and became the ruler of Rome. He pushed for many reforms that would solve Rome's problems. He was eventually murdered after his enemies heard rumors that he planned to become king.
Augustus
The title given to Octavian after he beat Antony. He had the same power as a king but was not considered to be one. He rolled out the foundation for a stable government and undertook reforms.
Census
A population count of the empire first ordered by Augustus. It was made to see how many people would be taxed.
Hadrian
One of the "good ruler" predecessors of Augustus. He codified the first Roman laws. He also had his army build a wall across Britain to protect Rome from intruders.
Virgil
The writer of the Epic poem Aeneid. He said that Rome's past surpassed all that was Greece.
Satirize
A way poets used verse to make fun of Roman society.
Mosaic
a picture made from chips of colored stone or class.
Engineering
The Romans excelled in this practice of science and math to develop useful structures and machines. They were so solid that they many of them were used after the fall of Rome.
Aquduc
Bridge like stone structures built by engineers that carried water from the hills into Roman cities. They really benefited public baths as well as the wealthy.
Ptolemy
An Egyptian astronomer/mathematician that proposed the idea of a geocentric solar system.