unit 1 ap human geography
flashcards for ap human geography unit 1
Terms in this set (75)
what is geography?
geography is the scientific study of the location of people and activities across the earth and the reason for their distribution
what two questions do geographers attempt to answer?
where? and why?
What are the four ways that geographers gather info?
remote sensing(GPS and GIS), census data, surveys, and field studies
what is remote sensing?
it is pictures taken from above earth usually with the help of a satellite
what does GPS stand for?
global positioning system
what is GPS used for?
used for precise location(originally a military tool), used for navigaiton(#1 use), can be used for surveillance, and used is GIS
What does GIS stand for?
geographic information system
what is GIS?
super-accurate maps with different layers
what is GIS used for?
used to study relationships between different data sets
How often is a census taken?
every ten years
Why is a census only taken every ten years?
because it is very time consuming and expensive($6.5 billion)
What was a censuses original purpose?
originally used to re-allocate the house of representatives(add and take out people for each state in the house of representatives)
What is a census used for today?
to decide the amount of federal funding for each state
What are some problems with census data?
undercount of the homeless, people who move may be counted twice or not at all, corruption
What is extrapolation?
takes a representative sample and then guess the rest (an estimate)
What does census data in the periphery look like?
closer to a survey, than a census
What is a survey like?
fast and cheap, but less accurate
What must you assume a survey is?
What is the confidence interval?
+/- 3% accuracy= 1000 people
What is another name for a field study?
a case study
what is a field study?
interviews and observations(sights, sounds, tastes, etc.)
What kind of data is collected in a field study?
qualitative data and quantitative data
what is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
qualitative describes and quantitatvie uses numbers
What is toponomy?
the study of the origins of place names
What is absolute location?
precises latitude and longitude
what is absolute location measured in?
degrees, minutes, and seconds
What is absolute location the benefit of?
when does absolute location change?
TRICK QUESTION!! (it NEVER changes)
What is relative location?
location determined by what is closest around you
what does absolute location demonstrate?
focal points of the people
how often does relative location change?
it is constantly changing
What is site of a place?
what is found there/the physical characteristics
What is situation of a place?
the relative location
What is cultural landscape?
the unique combination of the physical environment and the human influences upon it
what features in the cultural landscape are the same in almost every major urban area?
What are the three types of regions?
formal, functional, vernacular
What is a formal region?
a region that shares charateristics
what are some other names for formal region?
uniform or homogeneous region
what are some examples of formal regions?
G-114 or the U.S. as a state
What is a functional region?
an area you interact in on a daily basis
What are some other names for functional regions?
nodal regions,"activity space", census tract
What are some examples of a functional region?
WHS or your daily commute
What is a vernacular region?
the region you think you are in
What are some other names for vernacular region?
cognitive or perceptual region
What is an example of a vernacular region?
south, midwest, or soda vs. coke vs. pop
What is the difference between small scale and large scale?
small scale covers a large area with a small amount of detail and large scale covers a small area with large detail
What should you think about when thinking about scale?
how would my house look? small(small scale), large(large scale)
how important is scale to geographers?
What is globalization?
globalization is the ideas, valuea, beliefs, and cultural traits that are becoming increadingly shared throughout the world as interconnectedness increases
What is local diversity?
local diversity is where there are differences that are maintained around the world between places/cultural groups no matter how much globalization spreads
What is culture?
The way a particular group of people lives(what they belive and what they value, etc.)
What is cultural hierarchy?(specific to broad)
cultural trait, (Coach Staurch Rocks) cultural complex, cultural system, cultural region, and cultural realm
what is cultural hearth?
the origin or birth place of a particular cultural trait
what is acculturation?
cultural change where dominant cultures quickly force traits on subjected peoples(they remain more distinct)
what is assimilation?
cultural change where distinct cultures become indistinct(a peaceful and gradual change)
what is the 3rd generation rule?
over three generations the culture will have almost completely changed(only non-religious)
what is sequent occupance?
several different cultural groups that have occupied the same territory so you will see different layers in modern culture
What is diffusion?
the spread of ideas or traits from their place of origin to another place
What are the three main types of diffusion?
Expansion, relocation, and migrant
What is relocation diffusion?
when people move or migrate and bring their ideas and traits with them(ex.- immigrants0
What is migration diffusion?
ideas or traits that spread and die at the core(ex.- the wave)
What is expansion diffusion?
an idea or trait expands and stays strong at the core
What are the three types of expansion diffusion?
hierarchical, contagious, and stimulus
Whatr is hierarchical diffusion?
the spread or an idea through an established structure usually from people or areas of power of influence down to other people or areas(unequal spreading)(more common)
What are some examples of hierarchical diffusion?
high-end fashion, new electronics, the chain of command
What is contagious diffusion?
the spread of an idea, trait, or concept through a group of people or an area equally without regard to social class, economic position or position of power(equal spreading)(less common)
What are some examples of contagious diffusion?
tree rings, jokes in class, forest fires, and the flu
What is stimulus diffusion?
the spread of an underlying concept even though the new group changes of "remixes" the idea
What are some examples of stimulus diffusion?
korean rap, mcdonalds
What are the three types of barriers to diffusion?
cultural and physicla barriers and the time-distance decay
What are cultural barries?
some practice, idea, or innovation that is not acceptable to a culture
What is a cultural taboo?
something thats forbidden
What are physical barriers?
A barrier on the land that stops diffusion
Why are physical barriers not a relevant today?
because of technology
What is the time-distance decay?
the farther away from the source and the more time it takes, the less likely adoption of the thing will occur, and the more likely the same trait will develop differently