The New Deal Acts and Agencies
Terms in this set (32)
the Emergency Banking Act
protected larger banks from being dragged down by the weakness of smaller ones. Also provided federal assistance to troubled institutions and a thorough reorganization of those banks in greatest difficulty. The crisis was over.
The Economy Act
convince the public that the federal government was in safe, responsible hands. Proposed to balance the federal budget by cutting the salaries of government employees and reducing pension to veterans.
The Glass-Steagall Act
gave the government authority to curb irresponsible speculation by banks.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
guaranteed all bank deposits up to $2500
Truth in Securities Act
required corporations issuing new securities to provide full and accurate information about them to the public.
Securities and Exchange Commission
police the stock market.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
producers of seven basic commodities (wheat, cotton, corn, hogs, rice, tobacco, and dairy products) would impose production limits on their crops.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
tell individual farmers how much they should produce and would pay them subsidies for leaving some of their land idle. As a result, gross farm income increased by half in the first three years of the New Deal, and the agricultural economy emerged in the 1930s more stable and prosperous. However, favored larger farmers over smaller ones.
the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act 1933
permitted the government to pay farmers to reduce production so as to "conserve soil", prevent erosion, and accomplish other secondary goals.
the Farm Security Administration 1937
provided loans to help farmers cultivating submarginal soil to relocate to better lands. The program was ineffective.
the Rural Electrification Administration 1935
worked to make electric power available for the first time to farmers.
the National Recovery Administration 1933
Under Hugh S. Johnson, who called on every business establishment in the nation to accept a temporary "blanket code": a minimum wage of between 30-40 cents an hour, a maximum work-week of thirty-five to forty hours, and the abolition of child labor. However, the codes were poorly written, favoring large producers, raising prices higher than the market could sustain. Industrial production declined in the months after the agency's establishment. The NRA failed to increase the buying power for consumers, which made the higher prices an obstacle to growth.
Tennessee Valley Authority
progressive reformers wanted public development of the nation's water resources as a source of cheap electric power. They urged completion of a dam in Tennessee that begun during WW1 and was left unfinished. In 1932, a utility empire collapsed. The TVA was authorized to complete the dam and build other dams in the region, and to generate and sell electricity from them to the public at reasonable rates. It was also intended to promote a redevelopment of the entire region, encouraging the growth of local industries, and help farmers improve productivity.
the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
provided cash grants to states to prop up bankrupt relief agencies.
the Civil Works Administration 1933
put more than 4 million people to work on temporary projects.
Civilian Conservation Corps
created camps in national parks and forests and in other rural and wilderness settings. Young unemployed men worked in semi-military environments on projects like planting trees, building reservoirs, developing parks, and improving agricultural irrigation.
conservative business leaders who attacked the New Deal. It aroused public opposition to what its members called the "dictatorial" policies of the New Deal and to what they considered its attacks on free enterprise.
The Townsend Plan
all Americans over the age of sixty would receive monthly government pensions of $200, provided they retired and spent the money in full each month.
National Union of Social Justice
formed by Father Charles Coughlin who discerned upon Roosevelt's inability to control "money powers"
Share-Our-Wealth Plan and Society
Long, who had broken with the president, advocated a program of wealth redistribution. The government could use the tax system to confiscate the surplus of riches of the wealthiest men and women in America and distribute these surpluses to the rest of the population. That would allow the government to guarantee every family a minimum homestead and annual wage.
the Holding Company Act 1935
designed to break up the great utility holding companies.
the National Labor Relations Act and Board
provided workers with a enforcement mechanism missing from the 1933 law: the Board would have power to compel employers to recognize and bargain with legitimate unions.
The American Federation of Labor
remained committed to the idea of the craft union: organizing workers on the basis of their skills. During the 1930s, an idea opposing the craft union was industrial unionism: all workers in a particular industry should be organized in a single union.
Committee on Industrial Organization: John L Lewis
Lewis and his allies attempted to work within the AFL, but friction between the new industrial organizations and older craft unions grew. Lewis became embroiled in a series of angry confrontations with craft union leaders before finally walking out. He created the Committee on Industrial Organization. the CIO expanded the constituency of the labor movement. It was more receptive to African Americans, women, and minorities-- more militant.
the United Auto Workers
employed the sit-down strike techniqe for challenging corporation opposition. Employees in Detroit sat down inside the plants, refusing either to work or to leave, thus preventing the company from using strikebreakers.
the Steelworkers of America
began an organizing drive involving workers and strikes.
the Social Security Act
established several distinct programs. For older people, those who were destitute could receive federal assistance, and pension payments would be provided to Americans presently working. Also created a system of unemployment insurance and established a system of federal aid to people with disabilities and a program to aid to dependent children.
the Works Progress Administration 1935: Harry Hopkins
established a system of work relief for the unemployed. Under the direction of Harry Hopkins, the WPA was responsible for building or renovating public buildings and for constructing airports. Kept many employed and pumped needed money into the economy. the WPA also had flexibility, helping open jobs in the arts and assist single mothers.
the courts needed additional manpower and younger blood to enable them to cope with their increasing burdens. Roosevelt's real purpose was to give himself the opportunity to appoint new, liberal justices and change the ideological balance of the Court. Congress ultimately defeated it.
Temporary National Economic Committee
Congress established the TENC in response to Roosevelt denouncing "unjustifiable concentration of economic power" asking for a commission to consider major reforms in antitrust laws.
Fair Labor Standards Act
established a national minimum wage and a forty-hour workweek and which also placed strict limits on child labor.
In dian Reorganization Act 1934
restored to the tribes the right to own land collectively and to elect tribal governments. Even with the redistribution of lands under the 1934 act, Indians continued to possess only territory whites did not want.