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English 121 Final Fall 2010

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syntax
the manner in which words are arranged into sentences
simple sentence
a sentence with one independent clause
compound sentence
Two main clauses, each with a verb, linked with a conjunction. Eg. "The sun shone and the children played on the beach"
periodic sentence
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety.
fragment
a word, phrase, or clause that does not form a full sentence
independent clause
clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Ex. Kate noted the day's events in her journal.
dependent clause
does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence
subordinating conjunction
A word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause. Examples are although, because, while, etc.
comma splice
using a comma incorrectly to join two sentences. Ex. Mary walked home, she missed her ride. (There should be a semicolon or a comma with a conjunction between the two sentences.)
parallelism
the use of a series of words, phrases, or sentences that have similar grammatical form
diction
a writer's choice of words
connotation
the feelings or emotions surrounding a word
denotation
the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression
etymology
study of word parts; study of the origins of words
coherence
quality of a piece of writing in which all the parts contribute to the development of the central idea, theme, or organizing principle
narration
The purpose of this type of rhetorical mode is to tell the story or narrate an event or series of events.
description
The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses.
process analysis
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by it's explanation of how to do something or how something occurs. It presents a sequence of steps and shows how those steps lead to a particular result. (Can be seen often in recipes or directional manuals, a discussion of steps)
research
The systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
plagiarism
the act of plagiarizing
MLA
Acronym for Modern Language Association, publisher of guidelines for research paper formats
Persuasion
a form of argumentation, one of the four modes of discourse; language intended to convince through appeals to reason or emotion.
syllogism
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.")
deduction
the drawing of a conclusion through logic
induction
a type of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from a series of facts (reason leads one to a conclusion apparent in the facts)
fallacy
Any unsound or delusive mode of reasoning, or anything based on such reasoning.
analogy
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect
simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
metaphor
a figure of speech comparing to unlike things without using like or as
revision
the act of revising or altering (involving reconsideration and modification)
coordinating conjunction
connects word or word groups that have equal importance in a sentence (and, but , or, for, so, yet, nor)