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Holt Science & Technology Life Science Chapter 10

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The domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of single-celled organisms that do not have a ....
nucleus
All living things fit into three domains which are
Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya
Members of the domain Bacteria live in ...
soil, water, and other organisms
Member of the domain Archaea live in ...
extreme conditions
Most bacteria is too small to be seen without a ...
microscope
What are the three main shapes of bacteria?
rod-shaped, spherical, and spiral shaped
What helps give bacteria their shape?
A cell wall
Some bacteria have hair-like parts to help them move around called ....
flagella
An organism that doesn't have a nucleus is called a ...
prokaryote
A prokaryote is able to move, get energy, and reproduce like cells that have a nucleus, which are called ....
eukaryotes
Prokaryotes reproduce by one single-celled organism splitting into two single-celled organisms through the process called
binary fission
Since prokaryotes don't have a nucleus, their DNA isn't surrounded by a
membrane
The DNA in prokaryotes is in what shape?
circular loops
What are the steps to binary fission?
1. The cell's DNA is copied
2. The DNA and its' copy binds to different
places on the inside of the cell
membrane
3. As the cell and membrane grow bigger,
the loops of the DNA separate.
4. Finally when the cell is about double its
original size, the membrane pinches
inward. A new cell wall forms and
separates into two new cells.
Most species of bacteria do well in ...
warm, moist places
A. In dry and cold conditions, some bacteria die; other bacteria become inactive and form
endospores
.................. contains genetic material and proteins and covered by a thick, protective coating.
endospores
Bacteria are classified by the way they get
food
Bacteria use _________ to produce its own food.
the sun
Most of what we know about bacteria is what scientists have found when fighting
bacterial diseases
Do most bacteria cause disease?
No, only a few out of thousands do
How can bacteria be helpful?
They help recycle dead animals and plants. They also play an important role in the nitrogen cycle.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria take in nitrogen from the air and change it to form that plants can use. This is called ________.
nitrogen-fixation
....................... bacteria break down dead plant and animal matter.
Decomposer
Breaking down dead matter makes ....................... available to other living things
nutrients
A microscopic living organism is called a
microorganism
...................................... means using microorganisms to change harmful chemicals into helpful ones.
Bioremediation
Bioremediation is used to clean up ......
hazardous wastes
Lactic acid-producing bacteria break down the sugar in milk, which is called
lactose
....................... are medicines used to kill bacteria and other microorganisms.
Antibiotics
The body needs ................ to break down sugars and carbohydrates.
insulin
People who have .................... don't make enough insulin.
diabetes
When scientists change the genes of bacteria, or any other living thing, the process is called
genetic engineering
Bacteria that cause disease are called
pathogenic bacteria
A ....... is a living thing that a virus or parasite lives on or in.
host
Today, we are protected from bacterial diseases by
vaccinations
What are signs of bacterial damage to plants?
odd-colored spots or soft-rot
A ........... is a microscopic particle that gets inside a cell, and often destroy the cell.
virus
Why don't scientist know how many viruses there are?
Because they are tiny, and they change very often.
A virus can reproduce only ...
inside a living cell that serves as a host.
The virus forces the host to make ............... rather than healthy new cells.
viruses
Viruses can be grouped by:
a. shape
b. the type of disease they cause
c. their life cycle
d. the kind of genetic material they contain
The four main shapes of viruses are
a. crystals - (ex: polio)
b. cylinders - (attacks tobacco plants)
c. spheres - (influenza, HIV)
d. spacecraft - (attacks only bacteria; aka bacteriophage)
This protects the genetic material of a virus and helps a virus enter a host cell.
protein coat
The genetic material in viruses is either
RNA or DNA
Most RNA is made up of one strand of
nucleotides
Both DNA and RNA contain information for making ....
proteins
Stages of the lytic cycle:
1. The virus finds and joins itself to a host
cell.
2. The virus enters the cell, or the viruses
genetic material is injected into the cell.
3. Once the virus's genes are inside, they
take over the direction of the host cell
and turn it into a virus factory.
4. The new viruses break out of the host
cell, which kills the host cell (lyse). The cycle begins again.
In this cycle, each new cell gets a copy of the virus's genes when the host cell divides.
Lysogenic cycle
These medications kill viruses
antivirals