Kingdom of Naples
in the south, ruled by a series of kings
in the center, ruled by Roman Catholic Church
Florence, Milan, Venice
largest and wealthiest city states, in the north, controlled by different families
dominated Florence, great wealth enabled them to become patrons of the arts
philosophy that characterized the Renaissance
an outlook inspired by Greek and Roman models that stressed the importance of individualism and the almost unlimited potential of all individuals
valued a sense of civic responsibility and active engagement with the world
the well rounded, multi-talented individual, inspired by a Renaissance education
orators and poets
the father of Italian humanism, wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead and Sonnets to Laura
Letters to the Ancient Dead
imaginary letters to Cicero, Virgil, and Horace written by Petrarch
Sonnets to Laura
most famous contemporary work by Petrach, collection of highly introspective love poems to a married woman whom he romantically admired from a safe distance
developed printing in Mainz, Germany in around 1450
metal movable type, press mechanism, and cheap paper manufacturing
new innovations added to "block printing" which originated in China
Florentine diplomat, political scientist, watched armies invade Italy, convinced that political unity and independence justified any means, impressed by ancient Romans and how they defended their fatherland, wanted to end feuding among Italian city-states
the ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of their country, Machiavelli believed that ancient Romans possessed this
Machiavelli advised rulers to discover the advantages of ruthlessness, at least as temporary means to the higher end of a unified Italy
ruthlessness and deceitfulness in pursuit of power
Machiavelli turned from the world of hard-headed realistic politics to the world as he felt it should be, argued that power should not be in the hands of a single prince, but in the hands of the people
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