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Florence, Milan, Venice
largest and wealthiest city states, in the north, controlled by different families
an outlook inspired by Greek and Roman models that stressed the importance of individualism and the almost unlimited potential of all individuals
the father of Italian humanism, wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead and Sonnets to Laura
Sonnets to Laura
most famous contemporary work by Petrach, collection of highly introspective love poems to a married woman whom he romantically admired from a safe distance
metal movable type, press mechanism, and cheap paper manufacturing
new innovations added to "block printing" which originated in China
Florentine diplomat, political scientist, watched armies invade Italy, convinced that political unity and independence justified any means, impressed by ancient Romans and how they defended their fatherland, wanted to end feuding among Italian city-states
the ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of their country, Machiavelli believed that ancient Romans possessed this
Machiavelli advised rulers to discover the advantages of ruthlessness, at least as temporary means to the higher end of a unified Italy
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