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52 terms

Psychology 101 Final Review

Professor Bullis's Psychology 101 review for the final. Good luck everyone!
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Wilhelm Wundt
founder of psychology
Skinner's Principle
Organisms tend to repeat responses that result in positive outcomes; they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative responses
Applied Psychology
branch of psychology that is concerned with every day, practical problems
Theory
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Group therapy
the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group. 4-15 people, less expensive, groups' members function as therapists for each other
Hypothesis
tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables
Behavior therapy
involves application of the principle of learning to direct efforts to change clients' maladaptive behavior. Based on research from B.F. Skinner, Hans Eysenck, and Joseph Wolpe- Includes systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, and social skills training
Operational definition
describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
Antianxiety drugs
reduce tension, apprehension, and nervousness including valium, Xanax and antivan
Scholarly journal
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
Dopamine/ schizophrenia
class of disorders marked by fragmentation of thought processes including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior - may be caused by an increased amount of dopamine
Experimental research
method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes any changes that occur in a second variable result
Tardine dyskinesia
Neurological disorders marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements of the mouth, tongue, and face - Side effect of antipsychotic drugs
Dependent Variable
the variable that gets changed
Independent Variable
the variable that causes change
Antidepressant drugs
gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depression. Takes 1-2 weeks to reduce symptoms
Synapse
a junction where the information is transmitted from one neuron to another
Terminal Buttons
small knobs that secrete chemicals which are called neurotransmitters
Lithium
a chemical used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders
Reuptake
a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic neuron
REM sleep
Rapid Eye Movement, dreaming and muscle relaxation; this is the 5th stage of sleep
Lethal Overdose
Can occur with stimulants, sedatives or narcotics
Classical Conditioning
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
Shaping
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired result
Negative reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversion (unpleasant) stimulus (torture)
Attention
involves focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events
Schema
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events
Language/ Generative
meaning a limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate and endless array of meaning
Skinner's language learning principle
children learn language the same way as they learn everything else: imitation, reinforcement, and shaping
Age/ 2nd language
the younger the learner the better, prior to the age of seven
Achievement tests
measure previous learning instead of potential
Fetal stage
third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth. Capable of movement at this stage
Age of viability
the age at which a baby can survive in the event of premature birth
Erikson's disease
occurs after a failure to complete one of Erikson's stages
Consistency and distinctiveness
two major aspects of people that are defined by personality
Conservation
Piaget's theory of development: ages 2-7 symbolic thought
Psycho Analysis
Freud's method for treating mental disorders
Id
pleasure principle
Ego
reality principle
Superego
moral component
Appraisal of stressful events
subjective, what may be stressful to you is not to someone else and vice versa. 3 types: approach - approach, avoid - approach, avoid -avoid
Panic disorders
recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly or unexpectedly
Bipolar disorder
formerly known as manic-depressive, it is marked by the experience of both depressive and manic periods
Insight therapy
Clients engage in complex verbal interaction with their therapists with the goal being to pursue increased insight regarding their problems and to sort through possible solutions
Psychiatrists
are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. They prescribe drugs as well
Clinical Psychologists
specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and full-fledges mental disorders
Free Association
when clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feeling exactly as they occur with as little censorship as possible
Resistance
refers to largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
Transference
when clients start relating to therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their life
Client-Centered Therapy
created by Carl Roger, an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
Cognitive Therapy
an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.
Empiricism
the premise that knowledge should be acquired though observation