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-an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities, that included history, poetry, rhetoric, grammar, and moral philosophy


- first Protestant faith

The Edict of Worms

- made Martin Luther an outlaw


-release from part or all of the punishment for sin

Desiderius Erasmus

- best known Christian humanist

Martin Luther

-sent a list of Ninety-Five These to his church superiors. The list was an attack on abuses in the sale of indulgences

Peace of Augsburg

-agreement that formally accepted the division the Christianity in Germany

Jan Van Eyck

-one of the first to use and perfect the technique of oil painting

Albrecht Durer

-German artist- famous painting "Adoration of the Magi"


-called the father of the Italian Renaissance humanism



King Philip II

-nickname, "most Catholic king"

William the Silent

-prince of Orange; led the Dutch in the northern provinces

Elizabeth Tudor

-ascended the the English throne in 1558


-fleet of warships


-they made up 7% of the population total French population, but 40-50% of the nobility became Huguenots

Edict of Nantes

-recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France; it gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges


-rising prices

Divine right of kings

-belief that the king receives his powers from God and only has to answer to God


-these religious people were Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas

Charles I

-was the son of James I; he tried to increase rituals on the Church of England

James II

-became king of England after Charles II die; he was a devout Catholic which created problems with the mostly Protestant Parliament



Oliver Cromwell

-had Charles I killed; declared England a republic(commonwealth); he became a military dictator

Rump Parliament

-people who followed Oliver Cromwell


-a system in which a ruler holds total power

Louis XVI

-regarded as the best example of absolutism in the 17th century

Cardinal Richelieu

-took away the Huguenots' military and political power because they were seen as a threat to the king

Frederick William

-laid the foundation for the Prussian state and built a large and efficient standing army of 40,000 men

Ivan IV

-became the first ruler to take the title of czar in the 16th century; Known as "Ivan the Terrible"


-the Russian word for Caesar

Michael Romanov

-was the new czar in 1613, chosen by the National Assembly and was an absolute monarch who claimed the divine right to rule

Peter the Great

-became czar in 1689 and made Russia a great power

El Greco

-used contorted and elongated figures in his paintings

The Baroque Period

-know for its dramatic effects


-artistic movement

The ptolemaic system (geocentric)

-each planet or star revolved on a sphere orbit around the earth; Earth was at the center

Copernicus and Kepler

-in his first law, Kepler showed that the planets' orbits around the sun were not circular, like Copernicus had thought


-sun was at the center of the universe

Johannes Kepler

-mathematician that proved that the sun was at the center of the universe and orbits were elliptical

Galileo Galilei

-mathematician who used a telescope to view heavenly bodies, which he thought were material

Newton's view of the universe

-he said that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object in the universe by a force called gravitation; only one law could explain all motion in the universe

Universal law of gravitation

-every object in the universe is attracted to every other object in the universe

Rene Descartes

-called the father of modern rationalism; his first principle was "I think, therefore I am."

Scientific method

-uses inductive reasoning

Francis Bacon

-was an English philosopher who created a scientific method; he believed science should use inductive reasoning

John Locke

-said that every person was born with a tabula rasa (blank mind); and said that people were molded from their senses through experience


-his most lasting contribution was a system of checks and balances


-was known for his criticism of Christianity and his strong belief in religious toleration


-religious philosophy based on reason and natural law; voltaire and other philosophes thought the world was like a clock


- doctrine saying to let people do what they want

Mary Wollstonecraft

- declared that women should have equal rights

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

- he presented his concept of the social contract

Social contract

- through a social contract, an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

John Wesley

- started the evangelical movement, methodism

Enlightened absolutism

- rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers

Frederick the Great

- was a cultured monarch who held a strict watch over the government

Civil Code

- most important of the Seven law codes created

Anne Louise-Germaine de Stael

- prominent critic of Napoleon's role

The Duke of Wellington

- defeated Napoleon in Waterloo

2 major reasons for the collapse of Napoleon's Grand Empire

- (1) British resistance (2) nationalism

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

- completed St. Peter's basilica in Rome

William Shakespeare's play-writing era

- Elizabethan era

Miguel de Cervantes

- wrote "Don Quixote"

William Shakespeare

- master of English literature and wrote plays in the Elizabethan style

Don Quixote

- hailed as one of the greatest literary works of all time

Lope de Vega

- wrote extraordinary plays which were charming, action-packed, witty, and realistic; he wrote plays for money; wrote perhaps 1,500 plays

Thomas Hobbes

- wrote "Leviathan"


- a work on political thought that supported absolute power

John Locke

- wrote "Two Treatises of Government

Two Treatises of Government

- supported constitutional government

Natural rights

- the right to life, liberty, and property


- France's chief tax

Tennis court oath

- continued meeting until they had a new constitution

The Third estate

- owned 35-40% of the land and had to pay tax (taille)

Declaration of the Rights of Man

- stated that all men were free and equal before the law, but that women were not equal to men

Olympe de Gouges

- writer that refused to accept the exclusion of women and spoke up for the rights of women

Sans- Culottes

- members of the Paris Commune who were ordinary people without fine clothes


- was a musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes


- renowned organist


- musical child prodigy; his works were " The Marriage of Figaro", "The Magic Flute", and "Don Giovanni"

Thomas Edison

- created the light bulb; patented the first commercially practical incandescent light

Alexander Graham Bell

- invented the telephone in 1876

Guglielmo Marconi

- sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901

Karl Marx

- wrote "The Communist Manifesto"

Amalie Sieveking

- was a nursing pioneer who founded the "Female Association for the Care of the Sick" in Hamburg

Florence Nightingale

- most famous British nurse

Clara Barton

- in the U.S. Civil War, she transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle-class "women in white"

Emmeline Pankhurst

- with her daughters, she founded "The Women's Social and Political Union

Principle of ministerial responsibility

- principle where the prime minister was responsible to the popularly elected legislative body, not to the king or president

Chancellor Otto von Bismarck

- worked to keep Germany from becoming a democracy

Emperor William II

- reigned Germany from 1888-1918

Emperor Francis Joseph

- he ignored the parliamentary system

Czar Nicholas II

- believed that the absolute power of the czars should be preserved; created a legislative assembly called a duma


- legislative assembly created by czar Nicholas II


- the working class, were the oppressed


- a Marxist who rejected the revolutionary approach, believing instead in evolution by democratic means to achieve the goal of socialism


- another name for an emperor


- government owns and controls some means of production

Robert Owen

- British cotton manufacturer; was a Utopian socialist who created New Harmony Indiana

Congress of Vienna

- the victors met in September 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement

Klemens von Metternick

- believed that royal people who ruled before Napoleon would rule again, this is called legitimacy; the principle of legitimacy guided him;


- a political philosophy based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability

Principle of intervention

- great powers used military forces to crush revolutions in Spain and Italy and to restore monarchs to their thrones


- said that people should be as free as possible from government restraint

Bill of Rights

- written document that guaranteed freedom of assembly, speech, press, and equality before the law

German Confederation

- the 38 independent German states

Giuseppe Garibaldi

- dedicated Italian patriot; raised an army of 1,000 volunteers, which were called the Red Shirts because of the color of their uniform

Otto von Bismark

- was appointed new prime minister; dominated all of northern Germany

Kaiser William I

- was the emperor of the Second German Empire

Queen Victoria

- whose reign from 1837 to 1901 was the longest in English history

Czar Alexander II

- decided to make some reforms; assassinated in 1881


- movement that stressed individualism, emotion, feelings, and imagination

Ludwig van Beethoven

- was a bridge between classical and romantic music

Louis Pasteur

- Frenchman who proposed the germ theory

Charles Darwin

- published a book called "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

Natural selection

- central to organic revolution


- rejected romanticism; sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was

Charles Dickens

- became a huge success with novels that showed the realties of life for the poor in the early Industrial Age

Queen Liliuokalani

- she tried to strengthen the monarchy to keep the islands under her people's control

Motives for imperialism

- European nation-states were involved in heated rivalries; capitalist states in the west both markets and raw materials; like rubber, oil, and tin for their industries; and to gain advantages over their rivals


- a political unit that depends on another government for its protection

King Chulalongkorn

- son of king Mongkut and promoted western learning and maintained friendly relations with the major European powers

Commodore George Dewey

- commodore of U.S. naval forces and defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay

Emilio Aguinaldo

- was the leader of a movement for independence in the Philippines

Indirect rule

- local rulers were allowed to keep their authority and status in a new colonial setting

Direct rule

- the local elites were replaced with western officials from the mother country


- incorporated a country within a state

Muhammad Alli

- seized power and established a separate Egyptian state

David Livingstone

- explorer who trekked through uncharted regions in Africa; sent back info to London

Henry Stanley

- hired by King Leopold II to find David Livingstone when he got lost; he explored the Congo

Queen Victoria

- took the title Empress of India


- a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch

Indian National Congress

- it called for a share in the governing process of India; it DIDN'T demand immediate independence

Mohandas Gandhi

- began a movement based on nonviolent resistance and was a lawyer who forced the British to improve the lot of the poor.

Rabindranath Tagore

- most famous Indian author; was a social reformer, spiritual leader, educator, philosopher, singer, and painter


- largest group and worked as servants and laborers

Monroe Doctrine

- doctrine that guaranteed the independence of the Latin American nations


- separate military units that consisted of Manchus


- ruled from 1661-1722; took charge of the government while still in his teens and reigned for 61 years


- was beyond the extended family and consisted of dozens, or even hundreds, of related families


- the Manchus wanted to be able to identify the rebels so the government forced the males to shave their forehead hair, and to tie the rest in a ponytail (queue)


- living in a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not subject to the host country's laws

Hong Xiuquan

- a Christian convert who viewed himself as the younger brother of Jesus Christ


- China would adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions

Exclusive trading rights

- Western nations and Japan set up spheres of influence in China to gain exclusive trading rights

Guang Xu

- young emperor who launched a massive reform program known as the One Hundred Days of Reform

One Hundred Days of Reform

- massive reform program that emperor Guang Xu launched

Empress Dowager Ci Xi

- opposed the new reform program and imprisoned the emperor ( her nephew)

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