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194 terms

World History Exam Answers

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Humanism
-an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities, that included history, poetry, rhetoric, grammar, and moral philosophy
Lutheranism
- first Protestant faith
The Edict of Worms
- made Martin Luther an outlaw
Indulgence
-release from part or all of the punishment for sin
Desiderius Erasmus
- best known Christian humanist
Martin Luther
-sent a list of Ninety-Five These to his church superiors. The list was an attack on abuses in the sale of indulgences
Peace of Augsburg
-agreement that formally accepted the division the Christianity in Germany
Jan Van Eyck
-one of the first to use and perfect the technique of oil painting
Albrecht Durer
-German artist- famous painting "Adoration of the Magi"
Petrarch
-called the father of the Italian Renaissance humanism
Militant
-combative
King Philip II
-nickname, "most Catholic king"
William the Silent
-prince of Orange; led the Dutch in the northern provinces
Elizabeth Tudor
-ascended the the English throne in 1558
Armada
-fleet of warships
Huguenots
-they made up 7% of the population total French population, but 40-50% of the nobility became Huguenots
Edict of Nantes
-recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France; it gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges
Inflation
-rising prices
Divine right of kings
-belief that the king receives his powers from God and only has to answer to God
Puritans
-these religious people were Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas
Charles I
-was the son of James I; he tried to increase rituals on the Church of England
James II
-became king of England after Charles II die; he was a devout Catholic which created problems with the mostly Protestant Parliament
Republic
-commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell
-had Charles I killed; declared England a republic(commonwealth); he became a military dictator
Rump Parliament
-people who followed Oliver Cromwell
Absolutism
-a system in which a ruler holds total power
Louis XVI
-regarded as the best example of absolutism in the 17th century
Cardinal Richelieu
-took away the Huguenots' military and political power because they were seen as a threat to the king
Frederick William
-laid the foundation for the Prussian state and built a large and efficient standing army of 40,000 men
Ivan IV
-became the first ruler to take the title of czar in the 16th century; Known as "Ivan the Terrible"
Czar
-the Russian word for Caesar
Michael Romanov
-was the new czar in 1613, chosen by the National Assembly and was an absolute monarch who claimed the divine right to rule
Peter the Great
-became czar in 1689 and made Russia a great power
El Greco
-used contorted and elongated figures in his paintings
The Baroque Period
-know for its dramatic effects
Baroque
-artistic movement
The ptolemaic system (geocentric)
-each planet or star revolved on a sphere orbit around the earth; Earth was at the center
Copernicus and Kepler
-in his first law, Kepler showed that the planets' orbits around the sun were not circular, like Copernicus had thought
Heliocentric
-sun was at the center of the universe
Johannes Kepler
-mathematician that proved that the sun was at the center of the universe and orbits were elliptical
Galileo Galilei
-mathematician who used a telescope to view heavenly bodies, which he thought were material
Newton's view of the universe
-he said that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object in the universe by a force called gravitation; only one law could explain all motion in the universe
Universal law of gravitation
-every object in the universe is attracted to every other object in the universe
Rene Descartes
-called the father of modern rationalism; his first principle was "I think, therefore I am."
Scientific method
-uses inductive reasoning
Francis Bacon
-was an English philosopher who created a scientific method; he believed science should use inductive reasoning
John Locke
-said that every person was born with a tabula rasa (blank mind); and said that people were molded from their senses through experience
Montesquieu
-his most lasting contribution was a system of checks and balances
Voltaire
-was known for his criticism of Christianity and his strong belief in religious toleration
Deism
-religious philosophy based on reason and natural law; voltaire and other philosophes thought the world was like a clock
Laissez-faire
- doctrine saying to let people do what they want
Mary Wollstonecraft
- declared that women should have equal rights
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- he presented his concept of the social contract
Social contract
- through a social contract, an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
John Wesley
- started the evangelical movement, methodism
Enlightened absolutism
- rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers
Frederick the Great
- was a cultured monarch who held a strict watch over the government
Civil Code
- most important of the Seven law codes created
Anne Louise-Germaine de Stael
- prominent critic of Napoleon's role
The Duke of Wellington
- defeated Napoleon in Waterloo
2 major reasons for the collapse of Napoleon's Grand Empire
- (1) British resistance (2) nationalism
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
- completed St. Peter's basilica in Rome
William Shakespeare's play-writing era
- Elizabethan era
Miguel de Cervantes
- wrote "Don Quixote"
William Shakespeare
- master of English literature and wrote plays in the Elizabethan style
Don Quixote
- hailed as one of the greatest literary works of all time
Lope de Vega
- wrote extraordinary plays which were charming, action-packed, witty, and realistic; he wrote plays for money; wrote perhaps 1,500 plays
Thomas Hobbes
- wrote "Leviathan"
Leviathan
- a work on political thought that supported absolute power
John Locke
- wrote "Two Treatises of Government
Two Treatises of Government
- supported constitutional government
Natural rights
- the right to life, liberty, and property
Taille
- France's chief tax
Tennis court oath
- continued meeting until they had a new constitution
The Third estate
- owned 35-40% of the land and had to pay tax (taille)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
- stated that all men were free and equal before the law, but that women were not equal to men
Olympe de Gouges
- writer that refused to accept the exclusion of women and spoke up for the rights of women
Sans- Culottes
- members of the Paris Commune who were ordinary people without fine clothes
Hayden
- was a musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes
Bach
- renowned organist
Mozart
- musical child prodigy; his works were " The Marriage of Figaro", "The Magic Flute", and "Don Giovanni"
Thomas Edison
- created the light bulb; patented the first commercially practical incandescent light
Alexander Graham Bell
- invented the telephone in 1876
Guglielmo Marconi
- sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901
Karl Marx
- wrote "The Communist Manifesto"
Amalie Sieveking
- was a nursing pioneer who founded the "Female Association for the Care of the Sick" in Hamburg
Florence Nightingale
- most famous British nurse
Clara Barton
- in the U.S. Civil War, she transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle-class "women in white"
Emmeline Pankhurst
- with her daughters, she founded "The Women's Social and Political Union
Principle of ministerial responsibility
- principle where the prime minister was responsible to the popularly elected legislative body, not to the king or president
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
- worked to keep Germany from becoming a democracy
Emperor William II
- reigned Germany from 1888-1918
Emperor Francis Joseph
- he ignored the parliamentary system
Czar Nicholas II
- believed that the absolute power of the czars should be preserved; created a legislative assembly called a duma
Duma
- legislative assembly created by czar Nicholas II
Proletariat
- the working class, were the oppressed
Revisionist
- a Marxist who rejected the revolutionary approach, believing instead in evolution by democratic means to achieve the goal of socialism
Kaiser
- another name for an emperor
Socialism
- government owns and controls some means of production
Robert Owen
- British cotton manufacturer; was a Utopian socialist who created New Harmony Indiana
Congress of Vienna
- the victors met in September 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement
Klemens von Metternick
- believed that royal people who ruled before Napoleon would rule again, this is called legitimacy; the principle of legitimacy guided him;
Conservatism
- a political philosophy based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability
Principle of intervention
- great powers used military forces to crush revolutions in Spain and Italy and to restore monarchs to their thrones
Liberalism
- said that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
Bill of Rights
- written document that guaranteed freedom of assembly, speech, press, and equality before the law
German Confederation
- the 38 independent German states
Giuseppe Garibaldi
- dedicated Italian patriot; raised an army of 1,000 volunteers, which were called the Red Shirts because of the color of their uniform
Otto von Bismark
- was appointed new prime minister; dominated all of northern Germany
Kaiser William I
- was the emperor of the Second German Empire
Queen Victoria
- whose reign from 1837 to 1901 was the longest in English history
Czar Alexander II
- decided to make some reforms; assassinated in 1881
Romanticism
- movement that stressed individualism, emotion, feelings, and imagination
Ludwig van Beethoven
- was a bridge between classical and romantic music
Louis Pasteur
- Frenchman who proposed the germ theory
Charles Darwin
- published a book called "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Natural selection
- central to organic revolution
Realism
- rejected romanticism; sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was
Charles Dickens
- became a huge success with novels that showed the realties of life for the poor in the early Industrial Age
Queen Liliuokalani
- she tried to strengthen the monarchy to keep the islands under her people's control
Motives for imperialism
- European nation-states were involved in heated rivalries; capitalist states in the west both markets and raw materials; like rubber, oil, and tin for their industries; and to gain advantages over their rivals
Protectorate
- a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
King Chulalongkorn
- son of king Mongkut and promoted western learning and maintained friendly relations with the major European powers
Commodore George Dewey
- commodore of U.S. naval forces and defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
Emilio Aguinaldo
- was the leader of a movement for independence in the Philippines
Indirect rule
- local rulers were allowed to keep their authority and status in a new colonial setting
Direct rule
- the local elites were replaced with western officials from the mother country
Annexed
- incorporated a country within a state
Muhammad Alli
- seized power and established a separate Egyptian state
David Livingstone
- explorer who trekked through uncharted regions in Africa; sent back info to London
Henry Stanley
- hired by King Leopold II to find David Livingstone when he got lost; he explored the Congo
Queen Victoria
- took the title Empress of India
Viceroy
- a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch
Indian National Congress
- it called for a share in the governing process of India; it DIDN'T demand immediate independence
Mohandas Gandhi
- began a movement based on nonviolent resistance and was a lawyer who forced the British to improve the lot of the poor.
Rabindranath Tagore
- most famous Indian author; was a social reformer, spiritual leader, educator, philosopher, singer, and painter
Mestizos
- largest group and worked as servants and laborers
Monroe Doctrine
- doctrine that guaranteed the independence of the Latin American nations
Banners
- separate military units that consisted of Manchus
Kangxi
- ruled from 1661-1722; took charge of the government while still in his teens and reigned for 61 years
Clan
- was beyond the extended family and consisted of dozens, or even hundreds, of related families
Queue
- the Manchus wanted to be able to identify the rebels so the government forced the males to shave their forehead hair, and to tie the rest in a ponytail (queue)
Extraterritoriality
- living in a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not subject to the host country's laws
Hong Xiuquan
- a Christian convert who viewed himself as the younger brother of Jesus Christ
Self-strengthening
- China would adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions
Exclusive trading rights
- Western nations and Japan set up spheres of influence in China to gain exclusive trading rights
Guang Xu
- young emperor who launched a massive reform program known as the One Hundred Days of Reform
One Hundred Days of Reform
- massive reform program that emperor Guang Xu launched
Empress Dowager Ci Xi
- opposed the new reform program and imprisoned the emperor ( her nephew)
The Committee of Public Safety
- defended the people from threats and domestic and internal violence
Jacobins
- club that felt the king needed to be executed
Maximilien Robespierre
- was a radical Jacobin and was the 2nd leader of the Committee of Public Safety; drew his power from the Paris Commune and the support of the Sans-Culottes
Coup d 'etat
- a sudden overthrow of the government
Directory
- committee of 5 under the new constitution
Enclosure movement
- laws passed by Parliament; when landowners fenced off common lands, many peasants had to move to towns, giving Britain a plentiful supply of labor
Robert Fulton
- he built the first paddle-wheel steamboat, the "Clermont," in 1807
Industrial Capitalism
- an economic system based on industrial production
James Watt
- Scottish engineer who improved the steam engine in the 1760's; he made changes that enabled the engine to drive machinery
Dictatorship
- a form of government in which a person or small group has absolute power
Claude Monet
-painted pictures that captured the interplay of light, water, and sky
Pablo Picasso
- he was an important figure in modern art; (cubism)
Frank Lloyd Wright
- he pioneered the building of American homes with long geometric lines and overhanging roofs (Falling water)
Marie Curie
- discovered radium and how it gave off its own energy from the atom itself
Theory of Relativity
- stated that space and time are not absolute but are relative to the observer
Indemnity
- payment for damages
Sigmund Freud
- doctor from Vienna who proposed theories regarding the nature of the human mind; psychoanalysis- by which a therapist and patient could probe deeply into the patient's memory; thought behavior was strongly determined by past experiences and internal forces which people were unaware of
King Mongkut
- King of Siam ( The King and I movie)
Mestizos
- people of mixed European and Native American descent
Jose de San Martin
- member of the creole elite; believed that the Spaniards must be removed from all of South America if any South American nation was to be free; his forces had liberated Argentina from Spanish authority; he led his forces over the Andes to attack the Spanish in Chile
Simon Bolivar
- Liberator of Venezuela; he began the struggle for for independence in Venezuela in 1810; he led revolts in Columbia and Ecuador
Caudillos
- strong leaders who ruled chiefly by military force and were usually supported by the landed elites
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
- ruled Mexico from 1833-1855; he misused state funds, halted reforms, and created chaos
Benito Juarez
- a Mexico national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico; some of his laws of reform included: separation of church and state, toleration of all faiths, curbing the power of the military, and educational system for all of Mexico, and the redistribution of land to the poor
Cash crops
- crops that are grown for sale rather than for personal use
John Hay
- wrote a note to Britain, Russia, Germany, France, Italy, and Japan asking each country to respect equal trading opportunities in China; he also asked the powers with a sphere of influence not to set tariffs that would give an unfair advantage to the citizens of their own country
Provincial
- local level
Sun Yat-sen
- formed the Revive China Society; he believed that the Qing dynasty was in a state of decay and could no longer govern the country
Henry Pu Yi
- China's "last emperor"
General Yuan Shigai
- he was a prominent figure in military circles and had been placed in charge of the imperial army sent to suppress the rebellion; he abandoned the government; agreed to serve as president of a new Chinese republic and to allow the elecyion of legislature
Commodities
- marketable products like oil, copper, salt, tea, and porcelain
Commodore Matthew Perry
- arrived in Edo Bay with an American fleet of 4 warships; he sought to bring a singular and isolated people into the family of civilized nations; he brought a letter from Millard Fillmore, asking the Japanese for better treatment of sailors shipwrecked on the Japanese islands
Concessions
- political compromises
Mutsuhito
- he was the symbol of the new era and called his reign the Meiji or "Enlightened Rule"
Prefectures
- a territory governed by its former daimyo lord
Ito Hirobumi
- traveled to Great Britain, France, Germany, and the U.S. to study their governments
Cao Xuiean
- wrote "The Dream of the Red Chamber"
The Forbidden City
- closed to COMMONERS
Qianlong
- ruled the Qing dynasty from 1736-1795; outstanding Qing ruler; he expanded China to its greatest physical size
Manchus
- an opportunity for their dynasty to flourish once the Ming dynasty collapsed
Zheng He
- 7 voyages of exploration which led to enormous profits that alarmed traditionalists withing the bureaucracy
Ming dynasty
- began once the Mongol dynasty was overthrown; Ming rulers ran an effective government using a centralized bureaucracy staffed with officials chosen by the civil service examination; they set up a nationwide school system; manufactured goods were produced in workshops and factories in high numbers
Porcelain
- most famous of all the arts of the Ming Era
Emperor Yong Le
- began the construction of the Imperial City -a complex of palaces and temples- in 1406
Imperial City (Forbidden City)
- a complex of palaces and temples; off limits to COMMONERS (also known as the Forbidden City)