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AP Human Geography Unit 4: Political Organization of Space
Terms in this set (111)
What is a state and what are the four aspects of a state?
an area organized into a political unit; also called a country; recognized by the international community
- Gov't: create and enforce laws
- Territory: the land
- Population: the ppl
- Sovereignty: independent; free from foreign influence; the right to rule
What is a nation?
ppl around the world with common cultural traits and identity; homogenous; distributed around the world; nationality
What is a nation state?
a country that is associated with a specific ethnicity; +95% homogenous
What is self-determinism?
the idea that ethnicities should have political authority over themselves
What is irredentism?
the idea of annexing territory to unite an ethnic group. Ex) Nazi Germany, China, Pakistan/India
What is a multi-national state?
when many different ethnic groups (or nations) are inside a single country; a country with at least two ethnic populations that have sought self-determinism/independence/autonomy
- most countries today are MNSs to varying degrees
- there is no "perfect" MNS but some have been more peaceful than others
- lack of diffusion of ethnicity is a good sign of a nation-state
What is an exclave?
part of a country that is divided or cut off from the rest of the country by another territory or state
What is an enclave?
an area that is completely surrounded by culturally different groups of ppl
Who are some ppl (not a country) that would be considered a nation?
- Basques, Flemish, Walloons, Palestinians, Kurds
- AKA stateless nations or ppl
What are some states in the world?
Germany, US, Yugoslavia, UK, Bosnia-Herzegovina
- Basically any country not dominated by a single ethnic group
What are some nation-states?
Albania, Serbia, Belarus, Ireland, Israel, Armenia
What are the largest and smallest countries in the world?
There are several smaller countries but they are not members of the UN
When was the UN created?
1945 after WWII
How many countries were originally represented in the UN?
Describe the growth of the UN.
- 1955: 16 countries join after Nazi Germany is liberated; mostly in Europe
- 1960: 17 former colonies; mostly in Africa
- 1990: 26 countries join after collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR) & breakup of Yugoslavia
What countries are in the UN Security Council and what are their powers?
US, UK, China, France, and Russia
- Anyone of these countries can veto
- Often used against another member
- Soviet Union vs the US
What are the observer states of the UN?
EU, Palestine, Vatican City
What is a city-state and what are some examples?
- a city and the surrounding land; ppl lived inside the walls and farmed outside; common in ancient times
- Roman Republic and Empire
- Holy Roman Empire
What are some historic examples of multinational states?
USSR, AHE, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia (all were dismantled because ethnic minority felt dominated & oppressed by larger pops)
What is a shatterbelt?
a region surrounded by countries w/ extremely different politics; an area w/ constant conflict and is home to political splintering or fracturing
What is an expatriate/ expat?
someone who lives outside the country to which they are a citizen
What is a dual citizen?
someone who is a legal citizen of two countries; some countries are open while others restrict
What is an immigration state?
a country who sees a large amount in net migration
What is supranationalism?
when several countries give power to a larger organization
Ex) EU, UN, NAFTA
What is a devolution?
when central authority is shared or even given up to smaller units of gov't
Ex) US, UK, Mexico, Switzerland
What is centripetal force?
when power is directed towards the center; unites ppl
Ex) cultural identity, nationalism, national pride
What is centrifugal force?
when power spreads out from the center; divides ppl
Ex) ideological wars; cultural differences
Describe the shape of a compact country.
- when distance from center to any border does not vary greatly
- capital would ideally be in the center
- allows gov'ts to administer their countries easily
- Ex) Poland, Uruguay, and Cambodia
Describe the shape of an elongated country.
- when countries extend in a long and narrow fashion
- huge variations in extremes
- usually to maximize access to ocean but it also creates huge divide
- Ex) Chile, Gambia
Describe the shape of a prorupted country.
- when a country has a long projecting extension
- Access: extension to control or have access to a resource- usually water
- Ex) Thailand, Dem Rep of Congo
- Separation: extension to separate two countries that would normally share a border
- Ex) Afghanistan, Namibia
Describe the shape of a perforated country.
- when a country completely surrounds another
- can create tension if the two countries do not have a positive relationship
- Ex) San Marino and Vatican City in Italy; Lesotho surrounded by South Africa
Describe the shape of a fragmented country by water.
- when a country has discontinued pieces that are separated by water
- Ex) Indonesia
Describe the shape of a fragmented country by land.
- when a country has discontinued pieces that are separated by land of another country
- usually called exclaves
- Ex) Russia
Describe the shape of a landlocked country.
- when a country has no direct access to the ocean
- Ex) Czech Republic, Bolivia
What is a relic boundary?
boundaries that are no longer used but their impact is still felt/seen
What is an antecedent boundary?
were created before current cultural divides formed
What is a subsequent boundary?
were created as cultural divides formed
What is a superimposed boundary?
when larger, more powerful countries ignore already established cultural divides and create new ones
What are physical boundaries?
those boundaries that are formed by physical features
- Ex) Rivers, oceans, lakes, mountains, deserts
What are geometric boundaries?
those boundaries that are formed by lines of longitude and latitude
- Straight or diagonal lines
What are cultural boundaries?
those boundaries that are formed by cultural features
- Langs, religions, ethnicities, colonialism
What is an exclusionary boundary?
those that attempt to keep ppl out or make it more difficult to cross a border
What are inclusionary boundaries?
those that facilitate trade and transport
What are the two boundary types?
physical and cultural
What the four types of boundary disputes?
definitional, locational, operational, allocational
What is a definitional boundary dispute?
dispute over the clarity or language of a boundary
What is a locational boundary dispute?
when the interpretation of a boundary is disputed
What is an operational boundary dispute?
when countries disagree about how a boundary should operate
What is an allocational boundary dispute?
when countries dispute who controls resources around a boundary
What are the four parts to the creation of a boundary and what happens during each step?
1) Define: formal written agreement like a treaty setting up the border
2) Delimit: draw boundary on a map
3) Demarcate: mark the border using some visible means
4) Administrate: run and control and administrate the use of the border
What are voting districts based on?
- in most countries, this is done after a national census
What is gerrymandering?
- redrawing legislative election boundaries for the benefit of a political party or group of ppl
- states can gain/lose voting districts
- districts can gain/lose voters
What is wasted/ cracking gerrymandering?
spreading opposition votes across many different districts
What is excess/ packing gerrymandering?
concentrating opposition votes in a single (or a few) district(s)
What is stacked gerrymandering?
links like minded voters who are very far away in an oddly shaped district
What are consequences of gerrymandering?
- creates "safe" elections where one party will always win; same candidates
- decreases social cohesion if ppl from far off places are in the same districts
- can change future election results
- can lead to confusion and decreased voter turnout
- can create power (or take it away) from a certain population
What is a democracy?
when citizens elect leaders and they run the country with the interest of all
What is an autocracy?
when a country is run in the interests of its leader, not the ppl
What is an anocracy?
displays a mix of a democracy and an autocracy
What are the three types of regimes?
democracy, autocracy, and anocracy
What is a unitary state?
- when power is held by the central gov't
- ideally works w/ small, compact nation-states
- acts as a centripetal force by can also be used to silence or oppress minorities
What is a federal state?
- when power is shared by local gov't
- usually found in larger, multi-ethnic/ ethnic states
What is a confederate state?
when most power is held by local gov'ts they collectively share power with a central gov't
What was the Cold War?
period of hostility between the U.S. and Soviet Union; 1945-1991
What is NATO?
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- made up of the U.S> and her allies in N America and W Europe
- military organization
What was the Warsaw Pact?
- the Soviet Union and her allies in E Europe; military organization
What was the U.S. containment policy?
policy of the US to keep communism where it was already found and not let it spread
What is the Domino Theory?
US theory that saw the various countries of Asia becoming Communist; idea that if one country became Communist, the surrounding countries would as well
The EU was previously known as what organization?
- The European Economic Community
- Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, & W Germany
Describe the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (comecon)
- formed in 1949
- E Europe, Cuba, Vietnam, and Mongolia
What are the three types of cultural boundaries?
Religious, Ethnic, and Language
What are the least and most gerrymandered states in the U.S.?
Most- North Carolina
What is a boundary?
an invisible line marking the extent of a state's territory
What is balance of power?
a condition of roughly equal strength between opposing alliances
What is colonialism?
An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
What is a colony?
a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent
What is a frontier?
a zone where no state exercises complete political control
What is imperialism?
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
What is a microstate?
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
What is a multiethnic state?
A state that contains more than one ethnicity
What is a multinational state?
a country that contains more than one ethnicity with traditions of self-determination
What is sovereignty?
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
What is terrorism?
The systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands.
What is a monarchy?
A system of government in which one person reigns, usually a king or queen.
What is a theocracy?
a society ruled by religious leaders
What is totalitarianism?
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
What is forward capital?
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
What is extraterritoriality?
When a nation's subjects are governed by their nation's laws, despite living in another nation
What are the various water borders?
- Internal Waters: all water on landward side of baseline (baseline is normally the low water line); no right of passage for foreign vessels
- Territorial Waters: states may set laws regarding passage
- Contiguous Zone: states may enforce laws concerning pollution, taxation, customs, and immigration
- Exclusive Economic Zone: state has sole right to exploit natural resources
What are international waters?
no state control
What is an EEZ?
Exclusive Economic Zone. 200 nautical miles from coast; if EEZs overlap, then country with closest proximity tends to get it, but it is up to countries to decide
How has devolution created new countries/ended multi-national states?
USSR, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia dismantled because minority opposed dominant ethnicity; republics that once constituted local govs became transitions into independent countries
Where are unitary states most common?
What form of gov't do most large states have? Why?
federal bc national capital may be too remote to provide effective control over isolated regions
What large state does not have a federal government?
What kind of gov't would have elections and check & balances?
What forms of gov'ts have been increasing since the end of WWII?
What is the OAS?
- Organization of American States
- All 35 states in Western Hemisphere - headquarters in Washington, D.C.
- Purpose: social, cultural, political, and economic links among each other
What is the OSCE?
-Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
- military and political org
- NA and Europe (56 members include U.S., Canada, Russia, & East and Western Europe)
- Keep peace in Europe.
- Does not directly command armed forces. Can call upon member states to supply troops if necessary.
What is the AU?
- African Union
- political organization
- 2002 and 53 countries
- promotes economic integration
What is the Commonwealth of Nations?
- 52 former British colonies
- economic and cultural exchange
What is the CIS?
- Commonwealth of Independent States
- Former Soviet States
- Economic Exchange
What is the Heartland Theory?
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Heartland- region of Eurasia
Outer Crescent- N&S America, Australia, Southern Africa
Inner Crescent- area of Europe + Asia adjoining Heartland and Africa north of Sahara
What is the Sea Power Theory?
Mahan; late 1800s; argued that control of the sea lanes would lead to national strength.
What is the Organic State Theory?
Ratzel; nations act like living organisms - must grow and will eventually decline
What is lebensraum?
the territory that a state or nation believes is needed for its natural development, especially associated with Nazi Germany.
What is the Rimland Theory?
Created by Spykman in 1944, it is based on coastal power. It reasoned that the best base for global conquest would be the Eurasian Rimland.
What is the World Systems Theory?
theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
What is the Clash of Civilizations theory?
- in the 21st century the globe's major civilizations will conflict with one another,
- leads to anarchy and warfare
- The West vs The Rest
- Islam is threat for west
- immigration changes demographics
- Christianity declines and Islam rises
What are the five main purposes of the EU?
free trade, open work force, judicial union, monetary union, open border policy
What are choke points?
- strategic narrow waterways between two bodies of water
- associated with Mahan's Sea Power theory
(Suez Canal, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca)
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