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Started in the 1870's in germany for deaf and hard of hearing adults. It uses analytic drills and memorization. Incorporated basic principles of kinesthesis (awareness of movement), mimetic (imitating movements), and rhythm. Developed by Brauckman, promoted by Bunger.
started in the 1900's in Germany but appeared in US by 1902. It was a six week course focusing on rapid syllable drills and rhythmic speech. Started with most visible sounds and went to less visible. (Bruhn)
-Started in 1912
-Started with analytic approach and used mirror
-Later began using synthetic approach (need to grasp language as whole expressions
-Used psychological principles when developing training methods
-Started in 1931
-Studied the Nitchie method
-Opened her own school using Mueller-Walle method
-Combined Nitche's psychological principles with Mueller--Walle's methods "to develop a graded series of speechreading exercises"
What are words that look alike on the lips?
____ reported in 1949 that about __% of the words in the English language have some other word or words that look alike to them.
How many hearing impairments are accompanied by visual impairments? Who surveyed this? What year?
In the same year, ___ found that __% entering National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) demonstrated defective vision.
When both auditory and visual information is available, ______
individuals with hearing loss tend to do better on communication tasks
Speech recognition- 50%
Speechreading score- 20%
Combined Visual/Auditory- 90%
Bruhn, Kinzie, and Nitchie
All had hearing until adulthood and then had sudden loss. They sought assistance and developed their methods.
Perceive each of the basic parts before the whole can be identified.
Syllable is the basic unit.
Bruhn and Jena methods
Perception of the whole is paramount to perception of the basic parts.
Sentence is the basic unit.
Nitchie and Kinzie methods
increase child's knowledge of speechreading, generate strategies, increase confidence, increase tolerance for situations, increase goal setting, increase motivation to improve
Developing speechreading skills
1. Instruction; consideration for the process
2. Reflect on habits and skills
3. Identify difficult listening situations and formulate solutions
4. Introduction of formal speechreading lessons
Synthetic Speechreading training objectives
1. Will follow simple directions using a closed set response
2. Will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four dissimilar pictures
3. Will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four similar pictures
4. Will listen plus lipread to two related sentences, and then draw a picture about them or paraphrase them
5. Will speechread a paragraph-long narrative and then answer questions about it
age at implant, duration of deafness, cochlear structure, use of residual hearing, pressence of sophistication in language, presence of second language, presence of disabilities, family support, expectations of parents and child, educational environment, and availability of support
Parents and the success of their children
Parents must be active participants to contribute to the success of the child's overall development
Primary Factor in SR: Perceptual Proficiency (3)
Speed of perception
The ability to gain information from face and setting when the focus is on the mouth
The ability to identify parts and patterns.
This includes: organization and grouping of elements, conjectural perceptions, identification of patterns
The ability to identify the message
This includes: association of ideas, conjectural closure, identification of the message (involves abstract inductive reasoning)
Abstract inductive reasoning (4)
Rhythm of speakers speech
Verbal inductive reasoning
Social awareness of communication setting
Knowledge of topic of discussion
Primary Factor in SR: Flexibility
The ability to revise tentative closures if the first decisions do not result in appropriate and meaningful message
Flexibility process (3)
Revision of perceptual closures
Revision of conceptual closures
Ability to make educated guesses
Amount of training (age when training occured)
Kind of hearing loss (deaf or hard of hearing)
Structure (morphology and syntax)
Lexicon (internal dictionary)
Reaction to frustration or failure
Willingness to inform communication partners of hearing loss
Willingness to inform communication partner/group of communication breakdowns
Other factors (separate from the speech reader) 3
Characteristics of the speaker
Characteristic of the speaker
Articulation of speech
Lip movements (exaggerated/normal/none)
Rate of speech
Presence of distracting head, face or body movements
Facial expressions- appropriate/inappropriate
Speechreader's familiarity with speaker
Visibility of face and lips
Teeth structure/objects in mouth
is the set of choices or possible answers that should be known before listening( dressing bear ) short vs long
Closed sets and segmental identification
when success occurs increase the size of the set and use different words with more similar sounds
power of parent at home
parents shouldn't underestimate the power they have on their childrens listening lives
English as an Oral language
despite the fact that it has a written form it can be accesed visually it was designed to be heard and spoken
languages are not taught to young children, children learn language through every day use
set of hand symbols to support the recognition of the spoken english through speech reading
the world is a place to be narrated, parents who continually narrate and offer commentary
the philosophy of inclusion is based on the belief that a student's primary point of service delivery is in the general education classroom
schools for deaf children, schools for deaf using ASL, Private oral schools, day school with sim com, regional programs and self-contained classes within a public school for children with implants
Characteristics of schools that support children with Implants
teachers and auxillary personnel are knowledge of audiotry skills development and make a commitment to integrate opportunities for listening and speaking into every day routine
Hand cue, pause time, use parent as model, following child, acoustical highlighting, acoustical spacing, expansion
AV principles and Practices
Early identification, best technology, connect sound with meaning, teach child to respond to sound, follow normal development problems and mainstream child.
Children's brains are
wired for learning language through sound. This is how they naturally acquire it
develops use of residual heating to develop listening skills. requires intense participation, follows natural progression promotes mainstreaming
relies on speech reading and visual cues to teach spoken language, promotes mainstreaming
Advantages to self taugh
Non-threatening environment of home
Flexibility of learning
ease of access
follow the lead of the child, focuses on appropriate vocalizations, notice what the child notices, work at phrase level, expand what the child has said, work above the level to encourage growth, and use repition
sets of cards with pictures that take the hearing impaired child from babble to phrase
Cued speech contains
four hand positions, eight hand shapes, it's used as an aid to speech reading and is considered a manual mode
considerations when choosing:
Age of hearing loss, age of amplification, degree/ configuration, intelligence and responsibility of parents
degree/configuration of loss
mild can obtain language through amplification, severe will require work
emphasis on phrase level
used to motivate language. communicative intent is supposed to be meaningful and communications is the priority
heighten public awareness, ensure certification, provide quality education, and facilitate netwoks
Speech Reading is the process
of understanding a speaker by watching his mouth movements, facial expressions, gestures and body language
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