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Speech Reading dates back to...

the 16th century and was a big part of oral education

Speech Reading Methods (4)

Jena, Mueller-Walle, Nitchie Method, Kinzie Method


Started in the 1870's in germany for deaf and hard of hearing adults. It uses analytic drills and memorization. Incorporated basic principles of kinesthesis (awareness of movement), mimetic (imitating movements), and rhythm. Developed by Brauckman, promoted by Bunger.


started in the 1900's in Germany but appeared in US by 1902. It was a six week course focusing on rapid syllable drills and rhythmic speech. Started with most visible sounds and went to less visible. (Bruhn)

Nitchie Method

-Started in 1912
-"Expressive reading"
-Started with analytic approach and used mirror
-Later began using synthetic approach (need to grasp language as whole expressions
-Used psychological principles when developing training methods

Kinzie Method

-Started in 1931
-Studied the Nitchie method
-Opened her own school using Mueller-Walle method
-Combined Nitche's psychological principles with Mueller--Walle's methods "to develop a graded series of speechreading exercises"

What are words that look alike on the lips?
____ reported in 1949 that about __% of the words in the English language have some other word or words that look alike to them.


How many hearing impairments are accompanied by visual impairments? Who surveyed this? What year?

In the same year, ___ found that __% entering National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) demonstrated defective vision.



When both auditory and visual information is available, ______

individuals with hearing loss tend to do better on communication tasks

Speech recognition- 50%
Speechreading score- 20%
Combined Visual/Auditory- 90%

Bruhn, Kinzie, and Nitchie

All had hearing until adulthood and then had sudden loss. They sought assistance and developed their methods.

Analytic approach

Perceive each of the basic parts before the whole can be identified.
Syllable is the basic unit.
Bruhn and Jena methods

Synthetic Approach

Perception of the whole is paramount to perception of the basic parts.
Sentence is the basic unit.
Nitchie and Kinzie methods

Holistic Approach

increase child's knowledge of speechreading, generate strategies, increase confidence, increase tolerance for situations, increase goal setting, increase motivation to improve

Developing speechreading skills

1. Instruction; consideration for the process
2. Reflect on habits and skills
3. Identify difficult listening situations and formulate solutions
4. Introduction of formal speechreading lessons

Synthetic Speechreading training objectives

1. Will follow simple directions using a closed set response
2. Will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four dissimilar pictures
3. Will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four similar pictures
4. Will listen plus lipread to two related sentences, and then draw a picture about them or paraphrase them
5. Will speechread a paragraph-long narrative and then answer questions about it

Cochlear implants created _____

winds of change.

Three leading countries in Cochlear implant

Australia, Europe, and US

Three manufacturers

Cochlear, Advanced Bionics, and Med El

Number of Electrodes

varies between 22 and 24

What two things are done by audiologist

mapping and programming

Oral communication

only uses verbal methods

Total communication

uses sign in conjunction with speech

Simultaneous Communication

a more precise term meaning talking and signing at the same time

Parents with deaf children are most likely

hearing. 90% of deaf children come from hearing parents

Children with implants have better

reading and achievement scores

The Physiologic Zone

"neural survival"- inner ears's ability to sort and manage the signals

The Intervention Zone

candidacy, device management and habillitation

Candidacy factors

age at implant, duration of deafness, cochlear structure, use of residual hearing, pressence of sophistication in language, presence of second language, presence of disabilities, family support, expectations of parents and child, educational environment, and availability of support

Parents and the success of their children

Parents must be active participants to contribute to the success of the child's overall development

Primary Factor in SR: Perceptual Proficiency (3)

Visual perception
Speed of perception
Peripheral perception

Visual perception

The ability to identify speech sounds

Speed of perception

The ability to identify speech sounds rapidly

Peripheral perception

The ability to gain information from face and setting when the focus is on the mouth

Primary Factor in SR: Synthetic Ability (2)

Perceptual closure
Conceptual closure

Perceptual closure

The ability to identify parts and patterns.
This includes: organization and grouping of elements, conjectural perceptions, identification of patterns

Conceptual closure

The ability to identify the message
This includes: association of ideas, conjectural closure, identification of the message (involves abstract inductive reasoning)

Abstract inductive reasoning (4)

Rhythm of speakers speech
Verbal inductive reasoning
Social awareness of communication setting
Knowledge of topic of discussion

Conjectural closure means ...

mentally filling in missing words

Primary Factor in SR: Flexibility

The ability to revise tentative closures if the first decisions do not result in appropriate and meaningful message

Flexibility process (3)

Revision of perceptual closures
Revision of conceptual closures
Ability to make educated guesses

Secondary Factors in SR (3)

Language Comprehension
Emotional Attitudes

Training includes...(2)

Amount of training (age when training occured)
Kind of hearing loss (deaf or hard of hearing)

Language Comprehension...(3)

Structure (morphology and syntax)
Lexicon (internal dictionary)
Idiomatic expressions

What are the three primary factors of SR?

Perceptual Proficiency
Synthetic Ability

Emotional Attitudes

Reaction to frustration or failure
Willingness to inform communication partners of hearing loss
Willingness to inform communication partner/group of communication breakdowns

Other factors (separate from the speech reader) 3

Characteristics of the speaker

Characteristic of the speaker

Articulation of speech
Lip movements (exaggerated/normal/none)
Rate of speech
Presence of distracting head, face or body movements
Facial expressions- appropriate/inappropriate
Speechreader's familiarity with speaker
Visibility of face and lips
Facial hair
Teeth structure/objects in mouth

Environment (3)

Distance from speechreader

Message (3)

Visibility of speech sounds
Homophenous words
Knowledge of topic of conversation

closed set

is the set of choices or possible answers that should be known before listening( dressing bear ) short vs long

Parameters of pattern perception

items in a set should increase

Ongoing stage of pattern perception

syllable structure. jeep vs ambulance

Role of speech in listening activities

child needs to take turns during speech activities

Closed sets and segmental identification

when success occurs increase the size of the set and use different words with more similar sounds

Auditory comprehension

final developmental stage in listening

Parent-Child Activities

initial book reading for post implant children maybe done face to face

power of parent at home

parents shouldn't underestimate the power they have on their childrens listening lives

English as an Oral language

despite the fact that it has a written form it can be accesed visually it was designed to be heard and spoken

Learning language

languages are not taught to young children, children learn language through every day use

Cued speech

set of hand symbols to support the recognition of the spoken english through speech reading

Cochlear implant for language learning

has four principles

Principle one

there is a unique relationship between listening and languag

principle two

the world is a place to be narrated, parents who continually narrate and offer commentary

Principle three

Every opportunity for speaking

Principle four

Language growth occurs through exchanges with a mature language


the philosophy of inclusion is based on the belief that a student's primary point of service delivery is in the general education classroom

Educational choices

schools for deaf children, schools for deaf using ASL, Private oral schools, day school with sim com, regional programs and self-contained classes within a public school for children with implants

Characteristics of schools that support children with Implants

teachers and auxillary personnel are knowledge of audiotry skills development and make a commitment to integrate opportunities for listening and speaking into every day routine

AV techniques

Hand cue, pause time, use parent as model, following child, acoustical highlighting, acoustical spacing, expansion

AV principles and Practices

Early identification, best technology, connect sound with meaning, teach child to respond to sound, follow normal development problems and mainstream child.

Children's brains are

wired for learning language through sound. This is how they naturally acquire it


develops use of residual heating to develop listening skills. requires intense participation, follows natural progression promotes mainstreaming

Oral approach

relies on speech reading and visual cues to teach spoken language, promotes mainstreaming

Lip reading is taught by

Print, TV, video tapes and computer technolgy

How many computer programs are available

7 in the world (bloomsburg is one)

Advantages to self taugh

Non-threatening environment of home
Flexibility of learning
ease of access

children learn language through

the auditory channel

Av therapists

follow the lead of the child, focuses on appropriate vocalizations, notice what the child notices, work at phrase level, expand what the child has said, work above the level to encourage growth, and use repition

BEEBE program

sets of cards with pictures that take the hearing impaired child from babble to phrase

Inventor of Cued speech

Dr. Orin Cornett

Cued Speech

use of hand cues to reduce confusion produced by homophenous words.

Cued speech contains

four hand positions, eight hand shapes, it's used as an aid to speech reading and is considered a manual mode

considerations when choosing:

Age of hearing loss, age of amplification, degree/ configuration, intelligence and responsibility of parents

Age of hearing loss

loss before language requires more work

age of amplification

amplified earlier will develop language faster

degree/configuration of loss

mild can obtain language through amplification, severe will require work

Intelligence/ innate abilities

children with higher ability levels can obtain language quicker

Responsibility of parents

parents must devote time and effort

With the AV approach

listening should be incorporated into the child's total personality

unisensory approach

child must lock in using listening skills

specific techniques

use of hand cue, acoustical highlighting, and acousitcal spacing

specific cirriculum

follows normal language progression

cochlear implant rehabilitation

developed by AV international

emphasis on phrase level

used to motivate language. communicative intent is supposed to be meaningful and communications is the priority

intense and diagnostic individual AV

child and parent. Parent instruction on facilitating speech

AV protocol

parents who chose AV have a dream for their child.

hand cue

sign that you are talking and that it is childs turn to speak

pause time

wait for child to vocalize

using parent as model

the parent can give response first

following child

therapist follow the childs lead whenever appropriate

acoustical highlighting

target word in a phrase maybe given more acoustical properties and emphasis

acoustical spacing

target words need a fraction of silence before them

putting communication

take utterance made by child and transform it into langagu


expand on child's languag

making choices

makes choices back on auditory info

AV international

heighten public awareness, ensure certification, provide quality education, and facilitate netwoks

Speech Reading is the process

of understanding a speaker by watching his mouth movements, facial expressions, gestures and body language

Body language

form of gesture, movement of body

contextual clues

indicators of what the speaker is saying based on topic

facial expressions

movements of parts of the face to convey feeling

speech reading

understanding what a person is saying by observing lip movement

synthetic abilitiy

correctly identify a spoken message by reading facial expression

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