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112 terms

Speechreading Final

STUDY
PLAY
Speech Reading dates back to...
the 16th century and was a big part of oral education
Speech Reading Methods (4)
Jena, Mueller-Walle, Nitchie Method, Kinzie Method
Jena
Started in the 1870's in germany for deaf and hard of hearing adults. It uses analytic drills and memorization. Incorporated basic principles of kinesthesis (awareness of movement), mimetic (imitating movements), and rhythm. Developed by Brauckman, promoted by Bunger.
Mueller-Walle
started in the 1900's in Germany but appeared in US by 1902. It was a six week course focusing on rapid syllable drills and rhythmic speech. Started with most visible sounds and went to less visible. (Bruhn)
Nitchie Method
-Started in 1912
-"Expressive reading"
-Started with analytic approach and used mirror
-Later began using synthetic approach (need to grasp language as whole expressions
-Used psychological principles when developing training methods
-(Nitchie)
Kinzie Method
-Started in 1931
-Studied the Nitchie method
-Opened her own school using Mueller-Walle method
-Combined Nitche's psychological principles with Mueller--Walle's methods "to develop a graded series of speechreading exercises"
-(Kinzie)
What are words that look alike on the lips?
____ reported in 1949 that about __% of the words in the English language have some other word or words that look alike to them.
Homophenous
Bruhn
50%
How many hearing impairments are accompanied by visual impairments? Who surveyed this? What year?

In the same year, ___ found that __% entering National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) demonstrated defective vision.
38-50%
Campbell
1981

Johnson
65%
When both auditory and visual information is available, ______
individuals with hearing loss tend to do better on communication tasks

Example:
Speech recognition- 50%
Speechreading score- 20%
Combined Visual/Auditory- 90%
Bruhn, Kinzie, and Nitchie
All had hearing until adulthood and then had sudden loss. They sought assistance and developed their methods.
Analytic approach
Perceive each of the basic parts before the whole can be identified.
Syllable is the basic unit.
Bruhn and Jena methods
Synthetic Approach
Perception of the whole is paramount to perception of the basic parts.
Sentence is the basic unit.
Nitchie and Kinzie methods
Holistic Approach
increase child's knowledge of speechreading, generate strategies, increase confidence, increase tolerance for situations, increase goal setting, increase motivation to improve
Developing speechreading skills
1. Instruction; consideration for the process
2. Reflect on habits and skills
3. Identify difficult listening situations and formulate solutions
4. Introduction of formal speechreading lessons
Synthetic Speechreading training objectives
1. Will follow simple directions using a closed set response
2. Will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four dissimilar pictures
3. Will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four similar pictures
4. Will listen plus lipread to two related sentences, and then draw a picture about them or paraphrase them
5. Will speechread a paragraph-long narrative and then answer questions about it
Cochlear implants created _____
winds of change.
Three leading countries in Cochlear implant
Australia, Europe, and US
Three manufacturers
Cochlear, Advanced Bionics, and Med El
Number of Electrodes
varies between 22 and 24
What two things are done by audiologist
mapping and programming
Oral communication
only uses verbal methods
Total communication
uses sign in conjunction with speech
Simultaneous Communication
a more precise term meaning talking and signing at the same time
Parents with deaf children are most likely
hearing. 90% of deaf children come from hearing parents
Children with implants have better
reading and achievement scores
The Physiologic Zone
"neural survival"- inner ears's ability to sort and manage the signals
The Intervention Zone
candidacy, device management and habillitation
Candidacy factors
age at implant, duration of deafness, cochlear structure, use of residual hearing, pressence of sophistication in language, presence of second language, presence of disabilities, family support, expectations of parents and child, educational environment, and availability of support
Parents and the success of their children
Parents must be active participants to contribute to the success of the child's overall development
Primary Factor in SR: Perceptual Proficiency (3)
Visual perception
Speed of perception
Peripheral perception
Visual perception
The ability to identify speech sounds
Speed of perception
The ability to identify speech sounds rapidly
Peripheral perception
The ability to gain information from face and setting when the focus is on the mouth
Primary Factor in SR: Synthetic Ability (2)
Perceptual closure
Conceptual closure
Perceptual closure
The ability to identify parts and patterns.
This includes: organization and grouping of elements, conjectural perceptions, identification of patterns
Conceptual closure
The ability to identify the message
This includes: association of ideas, conjectural closure, identification of the message (involves abstract inductive reasoning)
Abstract inductive reasoning (4)
Rhythm of speakers speech
Verbal inductive reasoning
Social awareness of communication setting
Knowledge of topic of discussion
Conjectural closure means ...
mentally filling in missing words
Primary Factor in SR: Flexibility
The ability to revise tentative closures if the first decisions do not result in appropriate and meaningful message
Flexibility process (3)
Revision of perceptual closures
Revision of conceptual closures
Ability to make educated guesses
Secondary Factors in SR (3)
Training
Language Comprehension
Emotional Attitudes
Training includes...(2)
Amount of training (age when training occured)
Kind of hearing loss (deaf or hard of hearing)
Language Comprehension...(3)
Structure (morphology and syntax)
Lexicon (internal dictionary)
Idiomatic expressions
What are the three primary factors of SR?
Perceptual Proficiency
Synthetic Ability
Flexibility
Emotional Attitudes
Self-concept
Reaction to frustration or failure
Motivation
Willingness to inform communication partners of hearing loss
Self-advocacy
Willingness to inform communication partner/group of communication breakdowns
Other factors (separate from the speech reader) 3
Characteristics of the speaker
Environment
Message
Characteristic of the speaker
Articulation of speech
Lip movements (exaggerated/normal/none)
Rate of speech
Dialect/accent
Presence of distracting head, face or body movements
Facial expressions- appropriate/inappropriate
Speechreader's familiarity with speaker
Visibility of face and lips
Facial hair
Teeth structure/objects in mouth
Environment (3)
Distance from speechreader
Lighting
Distractions
Message (3)
Visibility of speech sounds
Homophenous words
Knowledge of topic of conversation
closed set
is the set of choices or possible answers that should be known before listening( dressing bear ) short vs long
Parameters of pattern perception
items in a set should increase
Ongoing stage of pattern perception
syllable structure. jeep vs ambulance
Role of speech in listening activities
child needs to take turns during speech activities
Closed sets and segmental identification
when success occurs increase the size of the set and use different words with more similar sounds
Auditory comprehension
final developmental stage in listening
Parent-Child Activities
initial book reading for post implant children maybe done face to face
power of parent at home
parents shouldn't underestimate the power they have on their childrens listening lives
English as an Oral language
despite the fact that it has a written form it can be accesed visually it was designed to be heard and spoken
Learning language
languages are not taught to young children, children learn language through every day use
Cued speech
set of hand symbols to support the recognition of the spoken english through speech reading
Cochlear implant for language learning
has four principles
Principle one
there is a unique relationship between listening and languag
principle two
the world is a place to be narrated, parents who continually narrate and offer commentary
Principle three
Every opportunity for speaking
Principle four
Language growth occurs through exchanges with a mature language
inclusion
the philosophy of inclusion is based on the belief that a student's primary point of service delivery is in the general education classroom
Educational choices
schools for deaf children, schools for deaf using ASL, Private oral schools, day school with sim com, regional programs and self-contained classes within a public school for children with implants
Characteristics of schools that support children with Implants
teachers and auxillary personnel are knowledge of audiotry skills development and make a commitment to integrate opportunities for listening and speaking into every day routine
AV techniques
Hand cue, pause time, use parent as model, following child, acoustical highlighting, acoustical spacing, expansion
AV principles and Practices
Early identification, best technology, connect sound with meaning, teach child to respond to sound, follow normal development problems and mainstream child.
Children's brains are
wired for learning language through sound. This is how they naturally acquire it
AV
develops use of residual heating to develop listening skills. requires intense participation, follows natural progression promotes mainstreaming
Oral approach
relies on speech reading and visual cues to teach spoken language, promotes mainstreaming
Lip reading is taught by
Print, TV, video tapes and computer technolgy
How many computer programs are available
7 in the world (bloomsburg is one)
Advantages to self taugh
Privacy
Non-obligatory
Non-threatening environment of home
Flexibility of learning
ease of access
children learn language through
the auditory channel
Av therapists
follow the lead of the child, focuses on appropriate vocalizations, notice what the child notices, work at phrase level, expand what the child has said, work above the level to encourage growth, and use repition
BEEBE program
sets of cards with pictures that take the hearing impaired child from babble to phrase
Inventor of Cued speech
Dr. Orin Cornett
Cued Speech
use of hand cues to reduce confusion produced by homophenous words.
Cued speech contains
four hand positions, eight hand shapes, it's used as an aid to speech reading and is considered a manual mode
considerations when choosing:
Age of hearing loss, age of amplification, degree/ configuration, intelligence and responsibility of parents
Age of hearing loss
loss before language requires more work
age of amplification
amplified earlier will develop language faster
degree/configuration of loss
mild can obtain language through amplification, severe will require work
Intelligence/ innate abilities
children with higher ability levels can obtain language quicker
Responsibility of parents
parents must devote time and effort
With the AV approach
listening should be incorporated into the child's total personality
unisensory approach
child must lock in using listening skills
specific techniques
use of hand cue, acoustical highlighting, and acousitcal spacing
specific cirriculum
follows normal language progression
cochlear implant rehabilitation
developed by AV international
emphasis on phrase level
used to motivate language. communicative intent is supposed to be meaningful and communications is the priority
intense and diagnostic individual AV
child and parent. Parent instruction on facilitating speech
AV protocol
parents who chose AV have a dream for their child.
hand cue
sign that you are talking and that it is childs turn to speak
pause time
wait for child to vocalize
using parent as model
the parent can give response first
following child
therapist follow the childs lead whenever appropriate
acoustical highlighting
target word in a phrase maybe given more acoustical properties and emphasis
acoustical spacing
target words need a fraction of silence before them
putting communication
take utterance made by child and transform it into langagu
exapnsion
expand on child's languag
making choices
makes choices back on auditory info
AV international
heighten public awareness, ensure certification, provide quality education, and facilitate netwoks
Speech Reading is the process
of understanding a speaker by watching his mouth movements, facial expressions, gestures and body language
Body language
form of gesture, movement of body
contextual clues
indicators of what the speaker is saying based on topic
facial expressions
movements of parts of the face to convey feeling
speech reading
understanding what a person is saying by observing lip movement
synthetic abilitiy
correctly identify a spoken message by reading facial expression