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Child Development Chapter 4 Prenatal Development
Terms in this set (48)
An egg cell.
The organ in a woman's body in which a baby develops during pregnancy.
A tube that connects the ovary to the uterus.
The male cell.
The process of the sperm fertilizing the ovum.
A tiny threadlike structure in the nucleus of every cell.
A unit that determines a human's inherited characteristics.
The complete blueprint for the creation of a person.
The complex molecules that make up genes (deocyribonucleic acid)
The inability to conceive a child.
A substitute. A surrogate mother is a woman who becomes pregnant to have a baby for another woman.
The baby's development during a pregnancy.
The fertilized egg.
The developing baby that is about the third week of pregnancy through the eighth week.
The liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus.
A tissue that connects the developing baby to the uterus.
a long tube that connects the baby to the placenta.
The developing baby from around the eighth or ninth week of pregnancy until birth.
*Size: At two weeks, the size of a pin head.
*Egg attaches to lining of uterus.
*Critical stage for brain and spinal cord development.
*Internal organs and circulatory system begin to form.
*The heart begins to beat.
*Size: About 1/4 inch (6mm) long as month begins.
*Face, eyes, ears, and limbs take shape.
*Bones begin to form.
*Size: About 1 inch (25mm) long as month begins.
*Nostrils, mouth, lips, and eyelids form.
*Buds for all 20 baby teeth appear.
*Fingers and toes almost complete.
*All organs present but still immature.
*Size: About 3 inches (7.6 cm) long, weighs one ounce (28 g) as month begins.
*Can suck its thumb, swallow, hiccup, and move around.
*Facial features become clearer.
*Size: About 6 1/2- 7 inches (16-18 cm) long, weighs about 4-5 ounces (113- 142 g) as month begins.
*Hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows appear.
*Teeth continue to develop.
*Organs are maturing.
*Becomes more active.
*Size: About 8- 10 inches (21-25 cm) long, weighs about 8-12 ounces (227- 340 g) as month begins.
*Fat deposits under skin, but fetus appears wrinkled.
*Breathing movements begin.
*Size: About 10-12 inches (25- 31 cm) long, weighs about 1 1/2- 2 pounds (680- 907 g) as month begins.
*Has periods of activity followed by periods of rest and quiet.
*Size: About 14-16 inches long, weighs about 2 1/2-3 pounds as month begins.
*Rapid weight gain continues.
*May react to loud noises with a reflex jerking action.
*Moves into a head- down position.
*Size: About 17-18 inches long, weighs about 5-6 pounds as month begins.
*Weight gain continues.
*Skin becomes smooth as fat deposits continue.
*Movements decrease as the fetus has less room to move around.
*Acquires disease- fighting antibodies from the mother's blood.
*Descends into pelvis, ready for birth.
When the developing baby dies prior to the twentieth week of pregnancy.
If the baby dies after the twentieth week.
What are the four main causes for birth defects?
1. Factors in the environment.
2. Hereditary factors.
3. Errors in chromosomes.
4. A combination of environmental and hereditary factors.
A general term for a variety of problems of the motor system. Symptoms can include lack of coordination, stiffness, difficulty with speech, and paralysis.
Causes- Damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth.
Detection- Motor skills are typically slow to develop during the first year of life.
Treatments- Damage caused to the brain is irreversible. Physical therapy, speech therapy, surgery, and medication can often lessen the effects.
Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
A gap in the upper lip or palate (the roof of the mouth) that causes problems with eating, swallowing, speech, and appearance.
Causes- May be caused by hereditary, environmental factors, or both.
Detection- Conditions are apparent at birth. Often detectable by ultrasound before birth.
Treatments- Surgery corrects the gap and helps eliminate problems associated with it.
Affects respiratory and digestive systems. Many with CF die before adulthood, although treatment now allows sufferers to live longer.
Causes- Caused by inheriting defective recessive genes from both parents. Most commonly affects Caucasians.
Detection- Blood tests can identify carriers of the gene. Sweat tests can diagnose an affected child.
Treatments- No known cure. Special diets, ling exercises, therapies, and medication can treat symptoms.
A group of problems that may include mental retardation; heart, blood, and digestive system difficulties; and poor muscle tone.
Causes- The presence of an extra chromosome 21.
Detection- Can be detected in a fetus by amniocentesis or chronic villi sampling, or after birth with a blood test.
Treatments- No known cure. Treatment includes therapy, special educational assistance, and in some cases corrective surgery.
There are many different types; all involve a progressive weakness and shrinking of the muscles. Most common form begins between the ages of two and six.
Causes- Most types are hereditary. Most common form is transmitted by female carriers of the gene but affects only males.
Detection- Recognizable once symptoms appear. Genetic counseling can identify carriers.
Treatments- No known cure. Physical therapy can minimize the disabilities.
Condition in which the body is unable to process and use a specific protein present in nearly all foods. Brain damage and mental retardation can result.
Causes- Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.
Detection- Newborns are tested for PKU, as required by law in all states.
Treatment- No known cure. If diagnosed early, a special diet can reduce or prevent brain damage.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Malformed red blood cells interfere with the supply of oxygen to all parts of the body. Symptoms include tiredness, lack of appetite, and pain. Can lead to early death.
Causes- Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents. Most common in African Americans.
Detection- Genetic counseling can identify parents who carry the gene. Amniocentesis or chronic villi sampling can identify it in a fetus. Blood tests can detect it after birth.
Treatments- No known cure. Medication can help treat the symptoms.
Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus
In spina bifida, an incompletely formed spinal cord may lead to stiff joints, partial paralysis, and problems with the kidneys and urinary tract. Seventy of every 100 children with spinabifidia also have hydrocephalus, in which an excess of fluid surrounds the brain.
Causes- Seems to be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. Taking a folic acid supplement during pregnancy may reduce incidence.
Detection- Spina bifida is apparent at birth. Hydrocephalus is indicated by overly rapid growth of the head. Tests of the mother's blood amniocentesis, and ultrasound can reveal suspected cases in a fetus.
Treatment- Corrective surgery, physical therapy, and special schooling can minimize disabilities caused by spina bifidia. Hydrocephalus can be helped by surgically implanting a shunt that relieves fluid build- up.
Tay- sachs Disease
Caused by the lack of a specific chemical in the baby's blood. The body cannot process and use certain fats. This leads to severe brain damage and death, usually by age four.
Causes- Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents. Most in common in families of eastern European Jewish descent.
Detection- Amniocentesis or chronic villi sampling can identify carriers and can test for the condition after birth.
Treatment- No known cure. Treatment includes trying to make the child comfortable.
A test that uses sound waves to make a video image of an unborn baby.
A blood test that is performed on the expectant mother between 15-20 weeks of pregnancy, it can indicate a possible birth defect.
The process of withdrawing a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn baby.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
An incurable condition found in some children of mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal Alcohol Effects
Abnormalities caused by the mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
Sudden infant death syndrome, the sudden, unexpected death of a baby under one year of age with no clear cause.
An infection caused by a parasite.
A viral infection also known as varicella.
Also known as German measles.
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