Terms in this set (109)
Durkheim's opinion on inequality
It is necessary for a society to function
What is structural functionalism in Sociology?
A faction that sees structure of modern society as stable/ functional if based on common values
What is the key to organic solidarity?
Interdependence (people need each other in society)
What binds people together in a mechanical society?
Common values/ strong collective conscious
Whose values are dominant social values according to marx?
Bourgeoisie/ ruling class
Marx saw the division of labor as?
What kind of sociologist is Marx?
According to Marx, differentiation leads to____?
What is the iron cage?
Overwhelming amount of bureaucracy that forces people to act without thinking only according to rules
Name three aspects of Bureaucracy?
○ Fixed officially sanctioned rules
○ Hierarchical authority
○ Written rules
○ Technically qualified staff
○ Competent management
○ Full time staff
Weber's three types of authority
○ Rotational legal (The Authority we have right now)
○ Charismatic (Nelson Mandela; the challenger of authority)
○ Traditional (Monarchy/ a white male supremacy type of leader)
The idea that people must work hard throughout their life and will get delayed gratification (worked out well because capitalism fit in perfectly with it)
What is Weber's basic unit of analysis
How can a bureaucracy be utilitarian?
Set up to achieve certain well defined goals
What does the sociological imagination link?
Personal problems and public issues
Who coined the the term "Habitas"?
The utility or use value you get from something; the intended consequence of an item/ action
The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group.
The physical objects that are created, embraced, or consumed by society that help shape people's lives.
The abstract creations of human cultures, including language and social practices.
Particular ideas that people accept as true.
Fairly weak norms that are passed down from the past, the violation of which is generally not considered serious within a particular culture.
Strongly held norms, the violation of which seriously offends the standards of acceptable conduct of most people within a particular culture.
Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable within a particular culture.
Codified norms or rules of behavior.
The general standards in society that define ideal principles, like those governing notions of right and wrong.
The values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society profess to embrace.
The values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society actually embrace and exhibit.
A contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture.
Taken for granted as "natural" or "normal" in society.
The perspective of the outside observer.
The perspective of the insider, the one belonging to the cultural group in question.
A worldview whereby the practices of a society are understood sociologically in terms of that society's norms and values, and not the norms and values of another society.
Cultures that exist together with a dominant culture but differ in some important respects from that dominant culture.
A system of symbolic verbal, nonverbal, and written representations rooted within a particular culture.
A commitment to respecting cultural differences rather than trying to submerge them into a larger, dominant culture.
The music, theater, literature, and other cultural products that are held in particularly high esteem in society.
The entertainment, culinary, and athletic tastes shared by the masses.
Media of public communication intended to reach and influence a mass audience.
a set of beliefs, norms, and values that normalizes sexual violence against women
social class reproduction
The way in which class status is reproduced from generation to generation, with parents "passing on" a class position to their offspring.
Wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and acting.
The internalization of objective probabilities and subsequent expression of those probabilities as choice.
A type of culture—some would say U.S. culture—that has spread across the world in the form of Hollywood films, fast-food restaurants, and popular music heard in virtually every country
A group consisting of two persons
A group consisting of three people
A subgroup that forms between group members, enabling them to dominate the group in their own interest.
The ability of a group to strategically and consciously exclude outsiders or those deemed "undesirable" from participating in the group or enjoying the group's resources.
A leader who is able to instill in the members of a group a sense of mission or higher purpose, thereby changing the nature of the group itself.
A type of power that is recognized as rightful by those over whom it is exercised.
Power that stems officially from the leadership position itself.
Power that derives from a leader's personality.
A process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of action that go against the group consensus.
The idea that an overarching structure exists within which culture and other aspects of society must be understood.
Money and material that can be used to access valued goods and services.
The social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence.
A group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose.
An organization that is rationally designed to achieve its objectives, often by means of explicit rules, regulations, and procedures.
Organizations that people join primarily because of some material benefit they expect to receive in return for membership.
Organizations in which people are forced to give unquestioned obedience to authority.
Organizations that people join of their own will to pursue morally worthwhile goals without expectation of material reward; sometimes called voluntary associations.
a type of formal organization based on written procedural rules, arranged into a clear hierarchy of authority, and staffed by full-time paid officials.
Iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels's theory that there is an inevitable tendency for a large-scale bureaucratic organization to become ruled undemocratically by a handful of people.
international governmental organization
An international organization established by treaties between governments for purposes of commerce, security, promotion of social welfare and human rights, or environmental protection.
International nongovernmental organizations
An international organization established by agreements between the individuals or private organizations making up its membership and existing to fulfill an explicit mission.
A high degree of disparity in income, wealth, power, prestige, and other resources.
The systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality.
A system in which the social levels are closed, so that all individuals remain at the social level of their birth throughout life.
A system in which social mobility allows an individual to change his or her socioeconomic position.
Categories of people sharing common characteristics without necessarily interacting or identifying with one another.
Social position linked to an individual's acquisition of socially valued credentials or skills.
Social position linked to characteristics that are socially significant but cannot generally be altered (such as race or gender).
A person's economic position in society, usually associated with income, wealth, and occupation, and sometimes associated with political voice.
The opportunities and obstacles a person encounters in education, social life, work, and other areas critical to social mobility.
The upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time.
The amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of time.
wealth (net worth)
The value of everything a person owns minus the value of everything he or she owes.
Net financial assets
A measure of wealth that excludes illiquid personal assets such as home and car.
A person's main vocation or paid employment.
The prestige associated with a social position.
The ability to exercise influence on political institutions and/or actors to realize personal or group interests.
Areas characterized by poor access to healthy and affordable food.
A society in which personal success is based on talent and individual effort.
The systematic disparities in income, wealth, health, education, access to technology, opportunity, and power among countries, communities, and households around the world.
Gross national income-purchasing power parity per capita (GNI-PPP)
A comparative economic measure that uses international dollars to indicate the amount of goods and services someone could buy in the United States with a given amount of money.
A market-oriented development theory that envisions development as evolutionary and guided by "modern" institutions, practices, and cultures.
The theory that the poverty of some countries is a consequence of their exploitation by wealthy states, which control the global capitalist system.
world systems theory
The theory that the global capitalist economic system has long been shaped by a few powerful economic actors, who have ordered it in a way that favors their interests.
Education that occurs within academic institutions such as schools.
The extension of formal schooling to wide segments of the population.
A society in which access to desirable work and social status depends on the possession of a certificate or diploma certifying the completion of formal education.
The education of racial minorities in schools that are geographically, economically, and/or socially separated from those attended by Whites.
de facto segregation
School segregation based largely on residential patterns, which persists even though legal segregation is now outlawed in the United States.
The social institution that organizes the ways in which a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods and services.
Objects that have an economic value to others, whether they are the basic necessities for survival or things that people simply want.
Economically productive activities that do not result directly in physical products; may be relatively simple or quite complex.
The large-scale, highly standardized manufacturing of identical commodities on a mechanical assembly line.
reserve army of labor
A pool of job seekers whose numbers outpace the available positions and thus contribute to keeping wages low and conditions of work tenuous.
A practice that sought to use principles of engineering to reduce the physical movements of workers.
The replacement of human labor by machines in the production process.
The management of feelings or emotions to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display in return for a wage.
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
characteristic of mechanical solidarity, where offenders are likely to be severely punished for any action seen as an offense against the collective conscience
Durkheim's view that law resolves conflicts between equals, as in commutative justice (related to organic solidarity)
the symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations
is the social integration of members of a society who have common values and beliefs.
the shared morals and beliefs that are common to a group and that foster social solidarity
Inability to meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.