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80 terms

The Immune System

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Which is a characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
what is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
Which is not a type of Tcell?
antigenic
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ___________.
bone marrow
Which is not a function of the inflammatory response?
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia cause by ________.
vasodilation
The antibody molecule is held together by _____bonds.
disulfide
In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is resopnsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
antigen
which of the statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
NK cells are a type of neutrophil
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called _________.
chemotaxis
Small molecules that bind with sef-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called _______.
haptens
Which of the following is the correct sequene of events in phagocytosis?
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ______.
cytotoxic cells
Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?
pathogens in the CNS
________predominate at the sites of chronic infections.
Macrophages
Interferons ________________.
interfer with viral replication within cells
____________ determine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
Our genes
Regulatory T cells
may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
Definition of tissue grafts
Isografts are between identical twins
What doesnt describe antigens
antigens only come from microbes
__________are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
Cytokines
Which is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
phagocytes
Which of the following is a characteristic of complete antigens?
reactivity with an antibody
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by __________.
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Graft rejection may be caused by ______.
using a xenograft
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by _______.
natural killer cells
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed________.
opsonization
Which is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
It is specific for a given organ
Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except____________.
juvenile diabetes
Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
allergic contact dermatitis
Innate immune system defenses include________.
phagocytosis
which statements is incorrect or false?
Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymeic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.
Phagocyte mobilization involves ____________.
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
Fever ___________.
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
Immunocompetence__________________.
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it.
Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self".
Tolerance is developed during fetal life.
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.
Cytotoxic T cells
are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
Helper T cells ___________________.
function in the adaptive immune system activation
Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.
The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome {AIDS} is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins
Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils
Delayed hypersensitivities _______________.
include allergic contact dermatitis
Natural killer {NK} cells _______________.
can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
select the correct answer about antigens
One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.
Clonal selection of B cells__________.
results in the formation of plasma cells
The primary immune response_______________.
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
Select correct answer about the function of antibodies
Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
Which of the following cells are the most critical cell in immunity?
helper T cells
Which of the following is NOT an autoimmune disease?
type II diabetes
Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?
a second exposure to an allergen
Select the correct statement about complement
an adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to it's target
Which of the following is true about the numberof binding sites per functional antibody unit?
IgM contains 10 binding sites.
Antibody functions include all of the followin except__
cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched.
Which statement is true about T cells?
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2
Toll-like receptors {TLRs} trigger the release of ____ to attract white blood cells to the scene.
cytokines
Which of the following is NOT a method by which antibodies work?
activating cytokines
What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
which of the following statements is a False or incorrect statement?
After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.
_____________are grafts taken from another animal species
xenografts
pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant are called _______ antibodies.
Monoclonal
_________is the most common type of immediate hypersensitivity.
Allergies
________cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the immune system is activated.
Natural killer
______is a dangerous condition where the cytokines are released unchecked, making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood fluids.
Septic shock or sepsis
Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called ____.
pathogens
______refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body.
Complement
The antibody that becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals is _______.
IgE
A _____is a cell hybrid formed from the fusion of tumor cells and B lymphocytes.
Hybridomas
_______cells are the only T lymphocytes that can directly attack and kill other cells.
Cytotoxic
_________is an autoimmune disease that severely impairs renal function.
Glomerulonephritis
Small proteins secreted by virus-containing cells.
Interferon
Major innate mechanism that mediates destruction of foreign substances in the body.
Complement
Stimulate the proliferation of other lymphocytes.
Helper T cells
Dampen the activity of both T cells and B cells
Regulatory T cells
Present the double activation signal to T cells
APCs-antigen presenting cells
Main antibody of both primary and secondary immune response.
IgG
Protects mucosal barriers
IgA
Involved in allergies
IgE
Along with IgM, this is a B cell receptor
IgD
Activates complement
IgM
True of False. The mechanism of the "lethal hit" of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells involves a protein called perforin.
True