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Which is a characteristic of antibodies?

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

what is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

Which is not a type of Tcell?


B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ___________.

bone marrow

Which is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia cause by ________.


The antibody molecule is held together by _____bonds.


In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is resopnsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?


which of the statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called _________.


Small molecules that bind with sef-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called _______.


Which of the following is the correct sequene of events in phagocytosis?

chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ______.

cytotoxic cells

Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

pathogens in the CNS

________predominate at the sites of chronic infections.


Interferons ________________.

interfer with viral replication within cells

____________ determine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

Our genes

Regulatory T cells

may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

Definition of tissue grafts

Isografts are between identical twins

What doesnt describe antigens

antigens only come from microbes

__________are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.


Which is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?


Which of the following is a characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by __________.

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

Graft rejection may be caused by ______.

using a xenograft

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by _______.

natural killer cells

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed________.


Which is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except____________.

juvenile diabetes

Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

allergic contact dermatitis

Innate immune system defenses include________.


which statements is incorrect or false?

Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymeic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.

Phagocyte mobilization involves ____________.

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

Fever ___________.

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting


is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it.

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self".

Tolerance is developed during fetal life.

Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.

Cytotoxic T cells

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

Helper T cells ___________________.

function in the adaptive immune system activation

Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome {AIDS} is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins

Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?

They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils

Delayed hypersensitivities _______________.

include allergic contact dermatitis

Natural killer {NK} cells _______________.

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

select the correct answer about antigens

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

Clonal selection of B cells__________.

results in the formation of plasma cells

The primary immune response_______________.

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

Select correct answer about the function of antibodies

Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.

Which of the following cells are the most critical cell in immunity?

helper T cells

Which of the following is NOT an autoimmune disease?

type II diabetes

Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

a second exposure to an allergen

Select the correct statement about complement

an adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to it's target

Which of the following is true about the numberof binding sites per functional antibody unit?

IgM contains 10 binding sites.

Antibody functions include all of the followin except__

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched.

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2

Toll-like receptors {TLRs} trigger the release of ____ to attract white blood cells to the scene.


Which of the following is NOT a method by which antibodies work?

activating cytokines

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

which of the following statements is a False or incorrect statement?

After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

_____________are grafts taken from another animal species


pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant are called _______ antibodies.


_________is the most common type of immediate hypersensitivity.


________cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the immune system is activated.

Natural killer

______is a dangerous condition where the cytokines are released unchecked, making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood fluids.

Septic shock or sepsis

Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called ____.


______refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body.


The antibody that becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals is _______.


A _____is a cell hybrid formed from the fusion of tumor cells and B lymphocytes.


_______cells are the only T lymphocytes that can directly attack and kill other cells.


_________is an autoimmune disease that severely impairs renal function.


Small proteins secreted by virus-containing cells.


Major innate mechanism that mediates destruction of foreign substances in the body.


Stimulate the proliferation of other lymphocytes.

Helper T cells

Dampen the activity of both T cells and B cells

Regulatory T cells

Present the double activation signal to T cells

APCs-antigen presenting cells

Main antibody of both primary and secondary immune response.


Protects mucosal barriers


Involved in allergies


Along with IgM, this is a B cell receptor


Activates complement


True of False. The mechanism of the "lethal hit" of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells involves a protein called perforin.


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