Identify the functions of the skeletal sysyem:
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Terms in this set (64)
The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum or breastbone, cocyx.

The appendicular skeleton consists of the girdles and the skeleton of the limbs. The upper (anterior) limbs are attached to the pectoral (shoulder) girdle and the lower (posterior) limbs are attached to the pelvic (hip) girdle.
Explain types of bones ( Long, Short, Irregular and Flat)Long- longer then are wide (ex humerous) Small bone- cube shaped bones( in wrist and ankle) Irregular-complicated shapes projections (ex vertabrae) Flat bones- thin flat slightly curved (ex. frontal bone)Head of the bone ..EpiphysisShaft of long bone....DiaphysisColumn-like matrix tubeLamellae-Compound BoneSmall cavities that contain osteocytesLacunae-Compound boneAligns along lines of stress/no osteons/contains irregularly arranged lamellaeTrabeculaeInterstitial growth-length of bones -occurs via growth at epiphyseal plateAppositional growth-thickness and remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts, osteoclasts on bone surfacesBone grows or remodels in response to forces or demands placed upon itWolf's LawRickets-Calcium Salts not deposited and causes bowed legs and other bone deformities during development -cause is vitamin D deficiency or insufficient dietary calcium/proteinLoss of bone massosteoporosisJoints in which can not move at allSynarthrosesJoints in which can slightly moveAmphiarthrosesJoints freely moveableDiarthrosesBones are joined by dense fibrous connective tissue- no joint cavity.. What type of joint is this?Fibrous JointsBones united by cartilage/ No joint cavity- What type of joint is this?Cartilaginous JointsArticular cartilage : hyaline cartilage covering articulating surfaces/ joint cavity and is always diarthroticSynovial-Flattened fibrous sacs filled with synovial membranes that reduce frictionBursaecommon, irreversible, degenerative - wear & tearOsteoarthritisIdentify functions of muscles-Movement of bones or fluids -Maintaining posture and body position -Stabilizing joints -Heat generation(especially skeletal muscle)-Attaches bones to skin -Striated & VoluntarySkeletal MuscleWhich muscle tissues are involuntary?Smooth & CardiacWhich Muscle tissue is voluntary?Skeletal Muscle TissueWhat Muscles tissues are striated?Skeletal and CardiacSpecial characteristics of muscle tissue are...-Excitability(responsive or irritable) ability to receive and respond to stimuli. -Contractility (ability to shorten when stimulated) - Extensibility (ability to be stretched) -Elasticity (ability to recoil to resting length)In a movement what provides the major force of producing a specific movement?Prime MoversIn a movement what provides the oppose or reverse to a particular movement?AntagonistsIn a movement what adds force to a movement?SynergistsWhat are synergists that immobilize a bone or muscle's origin and reduce undesirable or unnecessary movement?FixatorsWhat is the dense irregular connective tissue surround an entire muscle?EpimysiumWhat is the fibrous connective tissue surrounding fascicles (groups of muscle fibers) ?PerimysiumWhat is the fine areolar connective tissue surround each muscle fiber?EndomysiumWhat is a group of muscle fibers called?FasciclesWhat type of attachment is when the epimysium of muscle is fused to the periosteum of the bone?DirectlyWhat type of attachment is when the connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle as a rope like tendon or sheetlike aponeuruosis?IndirectlyWhat are two other names for a Muscle fiber?Muscle cell & MyocyteIn the muscle fiber what is used for glycogen storage and produces ATP very quickly?GlycosomesIn the muscle fiber what is used for O2 storage and makes it available for skeletal muscle in order to produce more ATP through the aerobic mechanism.MyoglobinDescribe sarcromere- smallest contractile unit of muscle fiber -Z disc to Z disc containing thick (a dark bands) and thin (I light bands) filaments -H zone in middle where filaments do now overlap -M line line of protein myomesin that holds adjacent think filaments togetherWhat filaments are composed of the protein myosin (heads and tails) which are binding sites for other filaments and for ATPThick FilamentsWhat filaments are twisted doubled strand of fibrous actin chainsThin FilamentsWhat covers and blocks binding sites ?tropomyosinWhat controls tropomyosin?TroponinWhat sequesters all ca++ during relaxation?sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)Allows electrical signals (action potential) that controls contraction to move deep into the cell quicklyT-Tubuleswhat are the requirements for skeletal muscle contraction?Activation- neural stimulation at the neuromuscular junction Excitation- contraction couplinga motor neuron and all (four to several hundred) muscle fibers it supplies is a ...motor unitMuscle contracts but does not change in length is what type of contraction?Isometric ContractionMuscle contracts and changes length is what type of contraction ?Isotonic ContractionWhen the muscle contracts as it lengthens it is call what?Isotonic Eccentric IsotonicWhen the muscle shortens and does work it is called what?Isotonic Concentric Isotonicwhich destroy bonesosteoclastswhich build bonesosteoblastswhich hold the bone togetherosteocytes