Upgrade to remove ads
KNH 101 midterm
Terms in this set (86)
What is "nutrition?"
it is the food that we consume to meet our nutrient needs, also known as "nourishment"
What are the six categories of essential nutrients?
What factors influence your food choices from the list above?
taste, health knowledge/concerns, routines
What is balance?
a healthy proportion of all nutrients
What is variety?
means to include many foods from different food groups
What is moderation?
an adequate amount of food and energy
just enough food should be consumed, nothing in excess
What are some examples of foods that are nutrient dense?
salads, vegetables, whole grains, peas and beans, unsalted nuts and seeds
What are some examples of foods that are calorie dense?
potato chips, cookies, brownies, mac n cheese
Explain the concepts of nutrient density and calorie density and how you could use these concepts to improve your diet.
nutrient density is the measurement of nutrients in food that outweigh the caloric density
I could use these concepts to focus on my food choices and to keep them high with nutrient dense foods and low with calorie dense foods
Who can you rely on for reliable nutrition information?
what are examples of macronutrients?
carbs, fats/lipids, and protein
what are examples of micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals
carbohydrates provide ___ kcal per 1 gram
proteins provide ____ kcal per 1 gram
fats provide ___ kcal per 1 gram
micronutrients do not provide energy
vitamins and minerals can assist ______
metabolism, hormones, or antioxidant properties
water helps transport different substances like vitamins & minerals and _____
helps remove waste from cells
The Dietary Reference Intakes are primarily intended for professional use. Given this, how could you use the information to help plan a healthful diet?
use them as a target in your own diet
Why can't assessment of dietary intake tell us if someone is deficient in a particular nutrient?
because everyone is different
Define Estimated Average Requirement
estimated to meet the requirement of HALF the healthy individuals in an age and sex group
what is Recommended Dietary Allowance
the daily dietary intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of NEARLY ALL (97-98%) healthy individuals in an age/sex group
statistical methods are used to determine this
what is Adequate Intake
when the available evidence is not enough to set the Estimated Average Requirement and Recommended Dietary. This is used to make the best scientific estimate of target intake for healthy people
what is Tolerable Upper Intake Level
the highest level of daily nutrient intake likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population
as intake increases above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, the risk of adverse effects increases
Explain the relationship between the Estimated Average Requirement, Recommended Dietary Allowance, and Adequate Intake Level. How is each set?
EAR = HALF,
RDA = NEARLY ALL, statistical methods
AIL = when EAR and RDA don't have enough evidence to be set
The Dietary Reference Intakes apply to healthy people and those who do not have special dietary needs. What are some groups of healthy people who might have increased or decreased needs for particular nutrients?
Why do the Dietary Reference Intakes vary by the age and sex?
because every individual is different
What %DV suggests a food is high in a particular nutrient?
What %DV suggests a food is low in a particular nutrient?
What %DV suggests a food is a good source of a particular nutrient?
What items will be added/deleted/changed on the new Nutrition Facts Label?
serving size/serving per container: larger and/or bolder type; also size is more realistic of what people eat or drink today; new requirements for certain size packages
calories: also in larger and/or bolder type; calories from fat has been REMOVED
%DV: updated based on new scientific evidence
added sugars now REQUIRED; vitamin D and potassium also REQUIRED due to the deficiencies in most people's diets
What standard must be met for a food to use the USDA organic seal?
products certified 95% or more organic may display the USDA seal
Compare the meaning of these words/phrases when they appear on a food label: 100% organic, organic, made with organic, and organic ingredients.
100% organic: used on certified organic fruits, veggies, eggs, meat, or other SINGLE-ingredient foods. can also be used on multi-ingredient foods excluding salt and water. may have a USDA seal
organic: MULTI-ingredient food means that at least 95% of the ingredients are certified organic, excluding salt and water. the nonorganic items must be from a USDA list of approved additional ingredients. may have a USDA seal
made with organic: if MULTI-ingredient has at least 70% certified organic ingredients. may have a "made with organic oats". probably wont carry a USDA seal
organic ingredients: if less than 70% of a multi-ingredient product is certified organic, it may not be labeled as organic or carry a USDA seal
Your friend states that he buys only organic produce because there are no pesticides or fertilizers on it. What could you say to him that would make him a more informed consumer?
there are pesticides and fertilizers used, they are just "approved" by the USDA which are used rarely and as a last resort in coordination with a USDA organic certifying agent
You are buying groceries and are comparing two products. One states that it is low fat and the other states that it has less fat. What do these claims mean?
low fat means it has 3g or less of total fat per serving
less fat means at least 25% less fat per serving than the regular version
Do foods labeled calorie free always contain zero calories?
no, it means it has less than 5 calories per serving
Explain the 5 main guidelines outlined in the DGAs, 2015 in your own words.
1. follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan
2. focus on variety, density, and amount
3. limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake
4. shift to healthier food and beverage choices
5. support healthy eating patterns for all
True/False: There is only one way to put the key recommendations from the DGAs into action.
Define the following terms: eating pattern, nutrient dense, and variety.
eating pattern: the combination of foods and beverages that constitute an individual's complete dietary intake over time, AKA dietary pattern
nutrient dense: characteristic of food and drink that provide vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health effects, with little or no solid fats and added sugars, refined starches, and sodium
variety: a diverse assortment of foods and drinks across and within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits for calories and other dietary components
What are some factors that influence eating patterns?
stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time
What are the 5 main food groups?
True/False: Choosing an eating style low in saturated fat, sodium, and added sugars can help manage calorie intake and prevent overweight and obesity, as well as reduce your risk for certain diseases.
How much 100% orange juice is equivalent to 1 cup of fruit?
One small apple is equivalent to how many cups of fruit?
How much raw lettuce, spinach or leafy greens are equivalent to one cup of vegetables?
Categorize lettuce, spinach and leafy greens with the appropriate vegetable subgroup.
dark green vegetables
One cup of mashed potatoes is equivalent to how many cups of vegetables?
Categorize mashed potatoes with the appropriate vegetable subgroup.
How many baby carrots is equivalent to 1 cup of vegetables? Categorize carrots with the appropriate vegetable subgroup.
red and orange vegetables
What are some of the health benefits of vegetables?
low in calories, good source of fiber, rich in vitamins and minerals
One egg is equivalent to how many ounces of protein?
One tablespoon of peanut butter is equivalent to how many ounces of protein?
How many tablespoons of hummus is equivalent to one ounce of protein?
What are some of the health benefits of protein foods?
many nutrients like protein, vitamin B, E, iron, zinc, and magnesium
What are some of the health benefits of grains?
may reduce the risk of heart disease, fiber, weight management, folate to help assist pregnancies
How many cups of popcorn (popped) is equal to two ounce equivalents of grains?
6 cups, 1 ounce is 3 cups
One cup of cooked pasta is equivalent to how many ounce equivalents of grains?
One slice of bread is equivalent to how many ounce equivalents of grains?
Six ounces of yogurt is equivalent to how many cups of dairy?
How many cups of shredded cheese is equivalent to one cup of dairy?
Name different forms of added sugars that may be added to food products when process or prepared.
sugar and syrup
What are 3 foods you have consumed that contain added sugars?
what are different names for added sugars?
sugar, anhydrous dextrose, confectioner's sugar, corn syrup, fructose, honey
What food source do solid fats mainly come from?
animal foods, but can come from certain vegetable oils
Name different forms of solid fats.
butter, cream, coconut oil, palm oil, beef fat
What is a carbohydrate?
found in plant foods and dairy products
contains 4 cal per gram
45-65% Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
What are the functions of carbohydrate in the human body?
Why are carbohydrates part of a healthful diet?
reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease
What are the different types of carbohydrate?
Which types of carbohydrate should be limited in the diet and why?
How can you differentiate between natural and added sugars in the diet?
natural sugar: in one-ingredient foods like fruit, dairy, veggies, and 100% fruit and veggie juice
added sugar: multi-ingredient foods like desserts, drinks, candy
What are the characteristics of soluble and insoluble fiber?
soluble: dissolves in water to form a thick gel-like substance in the stomach, broken down by bacteria in the large intestine and provides some calories
insoluble: does not dissolve in water and passes through the gastrointestinal tract relatively intact, and is not a source of calories
What are the functions of soluble and insoluble fiber in the body.
soluble: interfere w/ absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol which lowers bad cholesterol; also slows digestion and controls blood glucose
insoluble: provides "bulk" for stool formation and speeds up the movement of food and waste through the digestive system, which can prevent constipation
What types of foods are high in fiber?
veggies, fruits, nuts, seeds, whole grain foods
What foods in your diet are high in soluble fiber?
beans, fruits, oats, veggies, nuts
What foods in your diet are high in insoluble fiber?
fruits, nuts and seeds, veggies, whole grain foods
40 cals or less per serving
less than 0.5g of fat per serving
trans fat free
less than 0.5g trans fat per serving
3g or less of total fat per serving
reduced fat or less fat
at least 25% less fat per serving than the regular version
sodium free or salt free
less than 5mg of sodium per serving
140mg of sodium or less per serving
reduced sodium or less sodium
at least 25% less sodium per serving than the regular version
less than 0.5g of sugar per serving
at least 25% less sugar per serving than the regular version
no sugar added or without added sugars
no sugar or sugar-containing ingredient is added during the processing
what are high intensity sugars
contain few or no calories and are used to make foods that are low in sugar (sugar-free or "diet")
AKA artificial sweeteners, low calorie sweeteners, zero calories sweeteners
sweeter than table sugar
6 of them are FDA regulated: saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralose, neotame, and advantame
Cyclamates and its salts are PROHIBITED in the US
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Nutrition exam 3
KNH 101 Midterm
Nutrition Chapter 2
Nutrition - Chapter 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
KNH 101 Final
BLS Exam 2 Chapter 13-18
BLS Exam 1: Chapter 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11