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PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 1
Terms in this set (182)
One school of psychology suggests that internal mental representations affect external behavior. This similar most similar to that of which of the following theorists?
What type of psychologists are trained to perform assessments and conduct research on people with mental disorders?
One of the earliest perspectives in psychology was "functionalism", which focused on the adaptive purpose of behavior, why we have certain psychological characteristics. The founder of this school of thought was _____________________.
William James - adaptive, evolutionary, focused on the makeup/structure of human mind
Going to the Mall of America for an hour each day for two weeks to record interactions between teenaged shoppers at Urban Outfitters would be an example of which research method?
Dr. Jacobsen is investigating the link between social support networks and grades in school. Students in his classes are required to complete survey forms related to this research; however they are never told about the purpose of the survey. In this case, some researchers might argue that Dr. Jacobsen's research violates the ethical principle of
Manipulating a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observing the changes in a second variable defines ____________________.
The experimental approach
When two variables are linked and their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
Executives at Target want to use a personality inventory to screen job applicants for customer service positions. They want to select the inventory that best predicts behaviors such as honesty, friendliness, and dependability. Which of the following four inventories will be best for them?
An independent variable in an experiment refers to
the variable deliberately manipulated by the experimenter
A researcher has observed many four-year old girls preferring to dress in pink, wear ballerina tutus, and dancing on tip-toe. She defines these behaviors as "gender-role play"-- and theorizes that this behavior will be seen cross-culturally and that one will also find "gender-role play" in four-year old boys. She develops an inventory to measure "gender-role play" and uses it to test her hypothesis. In this case, "gender-role play"--a inferred cause of observed behaviors--is an example of _________________.
As you drive along a rural highway, the speedometer on your car says you are going 70 mph, but a police officer pulls you over and informs you that you were really doing 90 mph. One month later, the same thing happens. You drive down the same highway, thinking you are going 70 mph, and the same officer pulls you over to say you were speeding. One possibility is that your car's speedometer is ___________ but not __________.
Reliable, not valid
This simplest measure of variability is the
As he drove home from work, a route he had taken many times before, Adebayo drove almost effortlessly. But when he came to unexpected road construction, he had to figure out a detour. Suddenly he was engaged in slow, reflective, effortful thinking as he tried to think through the best route to reach home. According to Daniel Kahneman, Adebayo's careful rethinking of his route illustrates _________________.
System 2 thinking
Six-year-old Scotty comes running in the door and yells triumphantly to his mother, "Today is my lucky day; I found a four-leaf clover!" Many superstitions, like this one, likely began as which of the following?
illusionary correlation - refers to tendency to perceive a relationship between two events that are not actually related
Individuals suffering from a particular disorder suffer a loss of attention, arousal and memory because they have too little of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. A researcher discovers a drug that acts as an agonist for acetylcholine. Based on what the lecturer explained about how drugs work at the synapse, this new drug may prove to be useful to individuals experiencing this disorder because _________________.
it mimics the effects of acetylcholine
Why are animals studied in Biological Psychology
The brain structure that controls your ability to produce speech
The ____ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as running away from a wild animal).
Damage to the temporal lobe of the brain would probably be most harmful to the career of _______________.
An electrical charge difference (of -60 to -70 millivolts) across the neuronal membrane when the neuron is not being stimulated or inhibited is called __________________.
When an excitatory signal reaches the dendrites, ____________________.
the likelihood of a neural impulse is increased
As described in lectures on Biological Psychology, damage to the pre-frontal cortex can result in deficits to ones ___________________ ?
As described in lecture, Hebb's rule is supported by the cellular phenomena of ____________________.
A large pharmaceutical company has found a new drug to relieve pain by increasing endorphins in the synapses of pain sufferers. In which of the following ways might this drug work?
the drug might block endorphine clearance
The lobe of the brain with primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the ______________.
The portion of the human brain that mediates simple reflexes, such as sneezing, coughing, and salivating is the ________.
The dorsal "WHERE" pathway from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe is also known as the ______________ pathway.
Mary put her hand on a hot stove. Ouch! A "move your hand" message is carried from her spinal column back to her hand by which neurons?
Glands and hormones that control secretion of blood-borne chemical messengers are known as ________________________.
the endocrine system
When the nerve impulse arrives at the synapse ______________________________.
As discussed in discussion sections and your text, the failure to see visible objects or events because one's attention is focused elsewhere is known as ______________.
Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors, cyan blue, green and red. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called __________________.
Pigeons are very good at discriminating differences in color, have good visual acuity and are most active during daylight. If scientists looked at the retina of a pigeon, they would be most likely to find ________.
Even though the cars at the end of the train look miniature, we know they are full-size due to __________________.
American artist, Frederick Edwin Church, painted the entrance to Petra, a ancient city in Jordan, in 1874. We, the viewer, knows that the famous Treasury is beyond the dark canyon thanks to the depth cue of ______________.
A blind spot is a part of the visual field we can't see, where the __________ connects to the __________.
optic nerve, retina
When taking a picture, photographers attempt to draw people's attention toward a particular image. This is one example of the Gestalt principle of
The Ames room, in which people are seen to get small or enlarge as they move about, demonstrates that our perception of the world depends strongly on ________________.
the assumptions we make about the world
According to our lecturer, perception is ___________.
You are a radiologist who spends your days searching x-rays for evidence of malignant growths. In your work detecting possible cancerous tumors, you prefer to respond "yes" to further tests even though further tests usually confirm that no cancer is present. In the language of signal detection theory (you respond "yes" although the stimulus is not present) you would rather have many ______________ errors in a life-and-death case such as this.
Before you hear the great, foot-tapping music in the 2016 musical, La La Land, the sound waves are first processed by your auditory sensory system as follows:
hair cells in the organ of corti--thalamus--primary auditory cortex
The lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect it half the time is called
Riding his bicycle, Rob loved how the world smelled. The freshly cut grass, the scent of flowers, the slight asphalt odor on a hot day...all these odors were being converted from chemical molecules into neural information by receptors in Rob's nose in the process known as _________.
In scientific research, a theory is ___________________________.
a coherent network of explanatory ideas
When evaluating hypotheses, one should choose the explanation that best accounts for findings without adding unnecessary elements. This criterion is known as ____________.
James claims that he can read minds, but he refuses to tell anyone what he has learned so there is no way to test whether his claim is true or false. Which of the six principles of scientific thinking best describes this situation?
Which of the following is the correct sequence of information flow within the neuron?
Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called ______________.
psychoanalysis - proposed that unconscious thought processed and early childhood experiences are important determinants of peoples behaviors
What type of psychologist works with teachers, parents, and children to improve students' learning difficulties?
Stressing that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure is associated with the approach to psychology known as _________.
Jenny and Mark are divorcing and cannot reach an agreement over the custody of their four sons; Each wants full custody. The case has been taken to a family law court. To help the judge understand the problems associated with joint custody, Jenny's lawyer offers to bring a family who has been living under a joint custody arrangement. To help the judge understand why maternal custody is so bad for sons, Mark's lawyer offers to bring in a family in which the mother has sole custody. A Psy 1001 scholar will recognize that both lawyers are attempting to use ___________________, a personal story about a specific incident or experience, to support their client's case and influence the judge. What is the problem with this kind of argument?
anecdotal evidence, while vivid, concrete and memorable, a sample size of one is not large enough to derive broad principles
When you participate in a REP study, you are assured of that your responses will be anonymous and your name will never be associated with the research findings. This principle, "confidentiality" falls under the ethical principle of _____________________.
Random assignment is an important component of an experiment because it _______________________.
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. In this study, what is the dependent variable?
As discussed in lectures, a psychological construct is ______________.
Dr. Riviera measures his students' knowledge on the topic of memory by giving them three different quizzes over the course of 3 weeks (1 per week). He is hoping to show that student scores are largely the same from week to week. He is trying to establish the ________ of his quiz.
In Margaritte's sociology discussion group, five of the six students are between the ages of 19 and 23; the sixth student is 54 years old. If Margaritte wants to report the statistic that best represents the "average" age for her discussion group, she should report either
If you are shown two words--"banana" and "vomit"--you may automatically and with no sense of voluntary effort jump to the conclusion that the banana was tainted and caused the nausea. This intuitive mode of thinking is what Daniel Kahneman refers to as ______________________.
?? system one - intuitive
Strongest positive relationship?
0.34 closest to 1
As described in lecture, drugs can INCREASE the effect of a neurotransmitter such as dopamine at the synapse by ________________.
?? *Acting as an agonist?
Which of the following is NOT one of the kinds of research typically used by Biological psychologists?
Broca's area is found in the _______________ suggesting that producing speech involves executive sequencing and fine motor control.
The largest and most complex part of the human brain is the ____________.
During lecture, Dr Gewirtz described long-term potentiation, the neural basis of learning, in which ____________________.
high frequency stimulation increases the ability of cell A to activate cell B.
As discussed in lecture, when neurons are compared to other cells in the body, neurons are found to...
conduct electrical signals
Which of the following is a way to decrease the effectiveness of a neurotransmitter?
A friend's grandfather was just diagnosed with a disease that is associated with either acetylcholine or dopamine (your friend isn't sure.) You guess that it is acetylcholine because ___________________________.
Grandpa's symptoms include severe memory loss.
When Jeffrey slipped on the stairs and hit his head he saw "stars" for several minutes. The "stars" were most likely a result of activity in Jeffrey's _____________.
Which of the following structures is part of the hindbrain?
As described during lecture, the "what" pathway in the brain goes to the ________________.
As described in lecture, in a reflex response, sensory neurons carry the signal ______________________.
Last Friday, after dealing with the stressors of daily life--paying bills, bumper-to-bumper traffic from downtown to home, disagreeable co-workers, a crazy boss and idiot customers--Jane was likely to ___________________________________ in her blood stream.
increased levels or cortisol
After the neurotransmitter molecules is released into the synapse, ______________________________.
The one sense that doesn't undergo sensory integration in the thalamus before being transmitted to primary sensory cortex is _______________.
Your burgundy sweater looks almost black when you step into a shadow, yet you continue to see it as "burgundy" due to ___________________.
One depth cue relies on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so that the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object. This binocular cue is known as ________________.
The central part of the retina, responsible for visual acuity, is the ______________.
As we listen to music on the radio or on our iPods we often are aware of the arrangement of tones into melodies rather than just focusing on the individual notes. This auditory perception is compatible with the principles established by
The ________ is the illusory perception of movement produced by the successive flashing of images.
Joan was sitting talking with some friends when she suddenly left the room to check on her baby. She was sure she heard little Emily cry out, but when she checked, Emily was sleeping peacefully. Based on signal detection theory, the fact that Joan thought she detected a baby's cry (when no cry was present) would be considered
a false alarm
The registration of sensory input without conscious awareness refers to ______________________.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations is called _________________.
When evaluating hypotheses, the criterion of parsimony (or Occam's razor) states that the _____________________.
the best explanation is the one that accounts for findings without adding unnecessary elements.
Some research has shown that stimulating parts of the temporal lobe can produce vivid autobiographical memories. Others have suggested that these are not true memories, but rather are more like hallucinations that do not reflect real past experiences. To date, the true answer has not yet been solidified. This uncertainty in research findings demonstrates which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
While watching TV, you see a commercial for a new drug, Curolex, which cures 93% of cancer patients. But when you check Curolex out on Google Scholar, you can't find any research on its effectiveness. You are surprised by this because Curolex seems to be too good to be true, and the lack of convincing evidence makes you suspicious. When thinking about Curolex, you have used which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
Which of the following most accurately describes the influence of psychoanalysis on the field of psychology?
William James is considered a founding father of psychology because....?
He defined questions that have dominated psychology ever since.
You should voluntarily enter a REP study and have the right to withdraw from it at any time. This respect for the participant falls under the ethical principle of _____________________.
What is the main difference between an experiment and a correlational study?
An experiment involves the manipulation of variables, while a correlational study does not.
Placebos are used in research to control for ____________________.
NOT nontreatment effects
A researcher is interested in studying aggression. In order to measure aggressiveness, he asks parents of nursery school children to rate how aggressive their child is, on a scale of 1 to 7. In this case, the rating that each parent gives his or her child is a __________________.
NOT a psychological construct
Given what you have learned about the use of statistics to "know" in psychology, which of the following findings should you find most convincing?
The lecturer said that the brains of humans and rats are homologous, which means that
they have many of the similar functions meaning they probably were related at one point
Wernicke's area is found primarily in the _______________ suggesting that understanding speech is a form of object recognition.
Wernicke's: part of the temporal lobe involved in understanding speech
Which of the following individuals is likely to be at the highest level of sympathetic arousal?
Bill who is anticipating an exam he will take within the hour and for which he is unprepared
After a stroke, Dorothy fails to pay attention to objects in her left visual field. When she draws a daisy, for example, she neglects to draw its left side. Neglect syndrome, the name for this condition, can result from damage to the ____________________.
The name for the electrical current that passes along the axon and produces the release of neurotransmitters is ____________.
An electrical signal reaches the dendrites of a post-synaptic neuron, and the cell becomes LESS negative. That signal is called ________________.
Some theorists believe that a sort of "executive control system," which is responsible for monitoring, directing, and organizing thought processes, is housed in the ___________________.
Long-term potentiation refers to __________________.
synapses that show stronger and prolonged excitatory responses.
Neurotransmitters are secreted from synaptic vesicles stored in the _____________.
As discussed in lectures, drugs work ___________________________________.
by increasing or decreasing the effectiveness of neurotransmitters in the synapse.
________ play(s) a critical role as a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscles to contract.
The part of the cerebral cortex that plays a role in hearing, language comprehension, and object identification is ____________.
During states of stress, the adrenal glands produce _____________.
Which of the following is true about neurotransmitters?
The lateral geniculate nucleus and the medial geniculate nucleus are found in the ______________, an area of the brain which serves as a gateway between the sense organs and primary sensory cortex.
Which of the following is an example of how our selective visual attention can lead us to miss important information?
If you were born with only rods in your retina, no cones, which of the following would be most difficult for you?
The tendency to experience a stable perception of an object even though the sensory input we receive is continually changing is ____________________.
Sydney had an operation on his right eye and has to wear an eye patch for three weeks. While he is wearing the eye patch, Sydney will lose his ability to _______________________.
Blake was at a football game, and even though people wearing green jackets were spread fairly evenly throughout the stands, he still perceived all the people in green jackets as a single group of visiting fans. Blake's perception is most consistent with the Gestalt principle of
Marcus is color-blind because he lacks cone receptors for wavelengths of light in the red spectrum. Marcus's inability to see the color red illustrates a deficit in the process of ______________________.
Michelle is participating in a REP study. She has put on a set of Grado headphones and is listening to stream of white noise. The experimenter has explained that every so often she will hear a quiet "click" in the noise and that she should press a button whenever she hears it. Michelle has a very conservative response bias and, as described in lecture, signal detection theory predicts that Michelle's response bias will cause her to have _______________ than more respondents who are more sensitive to the signal.
Subliminal perception describes _____________________________.
Dr. Therapy treated 32 patients with depression with his new counseling technique. After one month, he found they had all improved so he concludes that his new technique is effective. In failing to consider other explanations for their improvement, Dr Therapy has violated which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
ruling out rival hypotheses//occams??? book
A researcher will choose to use the correlational method when _____________________________.
The purpose of the control group is to ___________________.
isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
While completing a survey on media use, Psy 1001 students are asked to indicate how many hours they spent watching fifteen different cable TV stations (such as Fox News, MTV or Comedy Central) during the past six months. Based on what you have learned in Psy 1001, you may wonder whether researchers will obtain accurate data due to the distortion of self-report data caused by?
Researchers studying the effects of sleep deprivation tested the physical coordination skills of 25-year-old males who had been sleep deprived for either 24, 36, or 48 hours. In this study, the dependent variable would be _______________.
the physical coordination skills of the men in the study
Define operational definition
working definition of what a researcher is measuring
Difference between validity and reliability
Validity: extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure
Reliability: consistency of measurement
Which descriptive statistic is least likely to be influenced by the presence of skewed data?
Difference between System 1 and System 2 thinking?
System 1: Intuitive
System 2: Analytical
What is the correlational coefficient? What is a strong coefficient? a weak one? What does the direction of a correlation refer to?
Correlational design: extent to which two variables are associated
positive correlation: as the value of one variable changes, the other goes in the same direction (
negative correlation: as one goes up the other goes down (-1.0)
zero correlation: variables don't go together at all
*Range from -1.0-1.0
*strength: look at absolite value
How can drugs DECREASE the effect of a neurotransmitter such as dopamine at the synapse?
acting as an ANTAGONIST
Give an example of Homologous
rat and human brains have similar parts (olfactory lobe, cerebellum, etc.), in similar locations, so scientists infer that they are descended from some distant ancestor
What is the Peripheral Nervous System? The automatic nervous system? The Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the automatic nervous system? What bodily functions are associated with each?
Central nervous system: sensory information comes into and decisions come out of (brain and spinal cord)
Peripheral: composed of all the nerves that extend outside of the CNS
Somatic: part of PNS that controls voluntary bevaior
Automatic: controls nonvoluntary functions of the body
Sympathetic: engaged during a crisis or after actions requiring fight or flight
Parasympathetic: controls rest and digestion
What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex? What functions are associated with each?
Cerebral Cortex divided into:
Frontal: reasoning and executive, reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition control
Parietal: processing tactile sensory information (pressure, pain, touch)
Occipital: interpreting vision stimuli and information
Temporal: processes information about location, primary auditory cortex, interprets sound and the language we hear, hippocampus is here, memories
parts of their world doest exist
What is Hebbs rule?
What is his rule? What is LYP (long-term potentiation)? How is LTP induced?
"cells that fire together, wire together"
one neuron (A) becomes connected to another neuron (B) when ir repeatedly activated that neuron
LTP: gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons by repetitive stimulation over time
What are dendrites?
branchlike extensions for receiving information from other neurons
Describe the parts and functions of the neuron: dendrites, soma, axons, terminal fields, myelin sheath
Soma: cell body, central region, manufactures new cell components
Dendrites: contain branchlike extensions for receiving information from other neurons, pass information into the cell body
Axons: cell phone transmitter, specialized for sending messages to other neurons, tail-like extensions, easily activated by incoming signals
Axon terminal:bursts releasing neurotransmitters that neurons use to communicate with each other
Synapse: fluid space between neurons through which neurotransmitters travel
Myelin Sheath: glial cells coats the axon to make electrical signal travel faster (insulators)
What neurotransmitters are associated with depression? Schizophrenia? Pain reduction? Parkinson's disease? Brain arousal? Muscle contractions?
Depression: antidepressants like Prozac and Paxil inhibit the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters (like seratonin) from the synapse
Schizophrenia: block dopamine receptors and prevent dopamine from binding with itself
Pain reduction: Opiates, codeine, morphine, reduce emotional response to painful stimuli
Muscle contractions: Acetylcholine
What is the function of the cerebellum?
brain structure responsible for the coordination of motor movements and sense of equilibrium
sensory neurons to interneurons to motor neurons
What is the pituitary gland?
"master gland" that controls other glands in the body
What is the endocrine system? Pituitary? Adrenal glands? Cortisol?
Endocrine: network of glands that release hormones into the bloodstream
Hormones: influence particular organs, snail mail, neurotransmitters are more like email
Adrenal glands: emergency centers of the body, produces adrenaline and cortisol
Cortisol: increases in response to psychological stress
What is reuptake
process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the synaptic vesicles from which they are released - axon terminals
What sense does not travel through the thalamus?
What are the two theories of color perception: the trichromatic theory and the opponent process theory?
trichromatic theory: that color vision is based on our sensitivity to three primary colors
opponent process theory: perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent colors: red, green, or blue
What is perceptual constancy?
process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
Define retinal disparity?
left eye and right eye have slightly different images
What is the anatomy of the eye: the cornea, pupil lens, retina, fovea, optic nerve? What is the blind spot
Cornea: curved, transperent layer covering the iris and pupil, the shape bends incoming light to focus the incoming visual image at the back of the eye
Pupil lens: circular hole through which light enters the eye, fine tune focusing
retina: thin membrane at the back of the eye
fovea: central part of the retina and is responsible for acuity
Blind spot: the area where the optic nerve connects to the retina
What is sensation?
What is perception?
sensation: detection of physical energy by sense organs sent to the brain
perception: brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs
From the photoreceptors in the retina, visual information is most precisely described as passing ______________________.
What is signal detection theory? "hits, misses, correct rejection and false alarm"?
signal detection theory: regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions
miss: false-negative (deny hearing a sound when it was present)
false-alarm: false-positive - report hearing a sound when it wasn't
correct rejection: true negative: deny hearing a sound that wasn't there
process of converting environmental energy into neural energy
What is parsimony/Occam's razor
the best explanation is the one that accounts for findings without adding unnecessary elements
Advantage to scientific method
works against confirmation bias
Resting Potential: no neurotransmitters acting on the neuron (-60 millivolts)
Threshold: when the electrical charge inside the neuron reaches a high enough level relativ e to the outside, and an electrical impulse called an action potential is triggered
Action Potential: universal language of neurons in humans and other animals - followed by a sudden decrease in charge
How do neurotransmitters work?
Some work to excite the nervous system (increasing activity)
Others work to inhibits the nervous system (decreasing its activity)
Psychoactive: they affect mood, thinking, arousal, observable behavior
INCREASE receptor site activity: Agonist
DECREASE receptor site activity: antagonists
movement and motor planning
Thalamus: sensory information sent to cortex
Hypothalamus: oversees endocrine and autonomic nervous system
Amygdala: regulares arousal and fear
Hippocampus: processes memory for spatial locations
Somatic Nervouse system
SNS: carries messages from the CNS to muscles throughout the body
Who is Jean Piaget? what kind of psychology is associated with him? What was the core assumption of this kind os psychology?
first person to present a comprehensive account of cognitive development, identify the stages that children pass through, stage theorist, will
Who is william james? What is functionalism? Difference between structuralism and functionalism?
father of psychology,
What ethical principles are used in psychology?
Informed consent: researchers must tell subjects what they're getting into before asking them to participate, purpose, duration, potential risks, free to withdraw at any time; protection from hard and discomfort; deception and debriefing informed of deception as soon as possible
Why use animals in research?
Excitation: electric current that passes along the axon and produces the release of neurotransmitters
Inhibitory: dampening neural activity
Cerebellum: (part of hindbrain) plays an important role in balance and coordination
Pons: triggering dreams, connects the cortex to the cerebellum
Medulla: regulated breathing, heart rate, and other vital functions
Communication between neurons
chemical events triggered by neurotransmitters orchestrate communication among neurons. Neurotransmitters released into the synapse, bind with receptor site along dendrites of neighboring neurons.
Synaptic contacts with dendrites, action potentials are sent down axons
Who is Sigmund Freud and what kind of psychology is associated with him? What are the core assumptions of this kind of psychology? When is it useful? Impact today?
an inferred cause of measurable events or processes
Biological psychologists obtain their data from which three kinds of research?
what is the dorsal pathway from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe? What does it mean to call this the WHERE pathway? what is the ventral pathway from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe? Why is it called the WHAT pathway?
dorsal WHERE (OP) processing the objects spatial location relative to the viewer and with speech repetition
ventral WHAT (OT) object and visual identification and recognition
focus on our perceptions of the "who;e" rather than the "parts"
case study: research design that examines one person or small # in depth over a long time
Naturalistic: watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation
Gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation
Glutamate and GABA
most common neurotransmitters in CNS
Glutamate rapibly excited neurons (enhanced memory and learning, contribute to schitzophrenia)
GABA: inhibits its neurons dampening neural activity (anti-anxiety drigs bind to GAPA and supress overreactive brain areas)
arousal, selective attention, sleep, and memory, Alzheimers
norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin - plays a critical role in the rewarding experiences that occur when we seek goals
role in eating, motivation, memory, and sleep
endorphins, hunger, thirst
When an _________ message reaches the dendrites of a neuron, the cell becomes more negative and the likelihood that a nerve impulse will occur is _________________.
Because they have similar chemical structures, morphine and other opiates are able to lock into receptor sites for ________.
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them// how we perceive sensory stimuli based on physical characteristics
thalamus to visual cortex
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
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