Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (28)
What was Cambrai known for?
Battle of Cambrai (November-December 1917) - Notable for the first large scale use of tanks by the British.
What was Ypres known for?
- Important as it stood as a direct link to many of the ports such as Dunkirk and Calais where the British often received food and supplies from.
- Ypres Salient: weakest part of the Allied area as it was overlooked by Germans who were on Hill 60 so they could fire down on the Allied and see their movements.
- 1st Battle of Ypres: October 1914 - Despite Germans extending their control around the edge of the Ypres Salient, the English held on to Ypres so that supplies and reinforcements could be provided.
- 2nd Battle of Ypres April 1915- First time chlorine gas was used on the Western Front by the Germans. Germans moved closer.
- 3rd Battle of Ypres 1917: Successful for Allied. Massive casualties 245,000. Bad weather, waterlogged conditions. Many drowned.
What was Somme known for?
Battle of the Somme (July-November 1916) - Known for Massive casualties, but British forces gained just 5 miles of land during these months.
What was Arras known for?
- Battle of Arras (April-May 1917) - This was a large scaled Allied attack on German positions. The British linked and expanded the underground tunnels for shelter, which worked initially but the casualties were very high
- Known for the underground tunnels joined up with ancient tunnels and quarries under the city, which created accommodation for soldiers to live and sleep in and there was a hospital, large enough for 700 beds.
- The underground hospital called Thompson's cave.
What were the key features of the trench system?
- Trenches formed zigzag lines.
- The front line (the firing line) was the trench nearest the enemy, where soldiers spent about 15% of their time.
- The support trench was 200-500 meters behind the firing line and it was where troops would retreat to from the frontline.
- The reserve line troops were where troops could be stationed for counter-attacks and it was where soldiers spent 45% of their time.
- Communication trenches connected all three rows of trenches.
What were the key features inside a trench
1) Parapet: a bank of earth thrown up in front of the trench to protect them from incoming fire as much as possible. Because they had to stop a German rifle bullet, they were often 4-5 feet thick.
2) Parados designed to stop bullets carrying on to the next line of trenches. It is the equivalent to a parapet at the back of the trench.
3) A fire step was build to allow men to fire their weapons from the trench. This was a simple platform in the side of the trench.
4) The revetting supported the trench and it was made of wood or netting. This stopped the trench from caving in during bad weather or enemy shelling.
What were the main illnesses and injuries on the Western Front and what were the methods of treatment and prevention
1) Gass Attacks
2) Head Injuries
3) Shell Shock
4) Trench Fever
5) Trench Foot
7) High explosive and shrapnel
What were the causes and symptoms of gas attacks and how was it treated?
Caused (mostly temporary) blindness, coughing and burns. In July 1915, gas masks were given to all British troops. Before this, they protected themselves with cotton pads soaked in urine
What were the causes and symptoms of head injuries and how was it treated?
Common and caused by shrapnel. By late 1915, the soldier's soft caps were replaced by Brodie helmets, which reduced head wounds.
What were the causes and symptoms of shell shock and how was it treated?
has a wide range of symptoms, including total mental breakdown. Some of the sufferers were accused of cowardice and most of them were treated close to the Front but some were evacuated to hospitals.
What were the causes and symptoms of the trench fever and how was it treated?
produced flu-like symptoms that were caused by lice. The fever also kept on relapsing. This meant that troops were deloused with bathhouses built for them to use and some washed their underclothes in paraffin.
What were the causes and symptoms of trench foot and how was it treated?
caused by standing in waterlogged trenches which could lead to gangrene, which was treated with amputation. To try to protect troops feet, they were given whale oil and spare socks, pumps were used to drain trenches, and duckboards were added for soldiers to keep their feet above the water.
What were the causes and symptoms of bullets and how was it treated?
could penetrate organs and fractured bones
What were the causes and symptoms of high explosives and shrapnel and how was it treated?
responsible for most deaths as men often recovered from the injury but not the infection.
What were the causes and symptoms of infections and how was it treated?
Bacteria often travelled through the soil as the soil had not been manured for years on the Western Front. Gas gangrene was a particular disease that many men who had been injured died from.
What was the evacuation route?
1) Stretcher Bearers:
Recovered the end and wounded, sometimes under fire. They carried basic medical supplies, bandages and morphine for pain relief.
There were only 16 bearers per battalion that had thousands of soldiers and it took 4 men to carry a stretcher. Had to deal with mud and shell craters.
2) Regimental Aid Post (RAP)
Close to the front line where the medical officer would distinguish between the lightly wounded and those who needed proper medical attention where they would either be bandaged and sent back into battle and the rest went to dressing stations for further treatment. Could be a dugout in the trenches, inside a ruined building or simply behind a wall.
3) Field Ambulance and Dressing Stations
A large mobile medical unit and set up dressing stations in tents or derelict buildings. Triage - a system of splitting the wounded into groups based on urgency. A quarter of a mile behind the front line. Serious cases were sent to CCS by motorised or horse-drawn ambulances.
4) Casualty Clearing Station (CCS):
A large well-equipped facility that was 7-12 miles from the fighting situated in tents and huts. By 1917, they had machinery like X-Ray machines, wards for 50 men. Could deal with thousands of men at a time.
5) Base Hospitals:
Civilian Hospitals or large converted buildings near railways in which they could treat 2500 patients at a time. Had operating theatres, laboratories for identifying infections. Even had specialist centres of treating. Often sent back to England in hospital trains.
How did the evacuation route become more effective .
- Ambulance trains began being used instead of horse ambulances that often got stuck in waterlogged conditions and they could carry up to 800 men.
- By 1914, there were four but by 1916, there were 28.
What was the RAMC?
- In 1914, all medical officers and men belonged to the RAMC - Royal Army Medical Corps, which organised and provided medical care.
- Consisted of all ranks from doctors to ambulance drivers to stretcher bearers.
- The RAMC expanded to come to the scale of the wounded. It had 9000 men in 1914 and 113,000 by 1918. More doctors were recruited by raising the age at which doctors could serve abroad to 45.
What was the role of nurses in WW1 and how did attitudes change?
- The main body of military nurses in 1914 was Queen Alexandra's nurses, of whom there were 300 in 1914 and 10,000 by the end of the war.
- Initially, the British army only accepted these nurses and turned away volunteer nurses but due to the rising casualties, attitudes changed.
- The best-known volunteers were the VAD (Volunteer Aid Detachment). This consisted of mainly middle and upper-class women with little experience of nursing before the war.
What was the work of FANY (First Aid Nursing Yeomanry)
- Volunteers often were ambulance drivers and nurses
- Only recruited by the British in 1916, when they changed their policy towards volunteers. Used to work for Belgium earlier.
- One FANY unit ran the Calais ambulance for 2 years with 22 drivers and 12 ambulances. There were even motorised kitchens and baths which could accommodate 40 men an hour.
What were the main improvements in medicine that linked to the war?
1) Mobilised X-Ray Machines
2) Blood Transfusions and Storage of Blood
3) Aseptic Surgery
4) The Thomas Splint
5) Brain surgery
6) Plastic Surgery
What were the developments to treat blood loss?
Blood Transfusions and Storage of Blood:
- discovered that sodium nitrate would be added to the blood to stop it clotting
- Other scientists found that blood could be stored in refrigerated conditions and adding citrus glucose solution allowed it to be stored for several days.
- created a portable machine for storing blood which could be used to take blood closer to front lines
What were the major developments in plastic surgery?
- Largely attributed to the work of Harold Gilles at Kent Queen's Hospital.
- Surgeons carried out over 11,000 plastic surgery operations, thus increasing their experience. By November 1915, seven hospitals in France were plastic surgery specialists.
- Surgeons developed new tehniques such as jaw splints and metal plates as "replacement" cheeks.
- Beginning of reconstruction surgery and skin grafts, which was taking skin from one part of the patient's body and putting it on the area of the wound.
What was the development in brain surgery?
- Better detection of the wounds using X-Rays and easier to locate small pieces of shrapnel the invention of a surgical magnet to extract bullets from head wounds.
- Soldiers were kept in a better state for surgery through the use of blood transfusions and saline solutions to reduce shock.
- However, it was often unsuccessful as there were few doctors who had experience with neurosurgery and difficult to move men with head injuries as were often unconscious or confused.
What was the development of mobilised X-Rays?
- Identified broken bones, shrapnel and bullets inside the body.
- This was effective as these objects needed to be located to make surgery faster and more effective.
- Mobile machines were used closer to the front line whereas static X-Ray machines were used near the front lines.
- Images on mobile machines were not as clear as those on static machines.
What was the development in aseptic surgery?
- carbolic acid to kill bacteria in soldiers wounds, Carrell-Dakin tube to keep chemical solution flowing through the wound. More effective as it as continuous.
- Development in deep surgery as doctors cut out all tissue and dead muscle surrounding the wound that might have become infected, as well as all traces of bullet and shrapnel. Also, did not sew up wounds immediately, but kept them open for the use of antiseptics as sewing up the wound immediately left the bacteria trapped inside.
What was the development of the Thomas Splint?
- helped heal fractured bones.
- It kept the leg rigid, which reduced blood loss. Effective as patients died from blood loss before they could be treated.
- All Regimental medical officers were taught how to use it near the front line because when soldiers reached the CCS, they could be operated on as they had not lost too much blood.
- This bought the death rate for those with broken legs from 80% to less than 20%.
What was the impact of the Western Front on medicine in modern Britian in the 20th Century
The impact of war and the large extent of casualties meant that surgical techniques for treating severe wounds improved and the prevention of illnesses like trench fever and gas gangrene improved. Additionally, doctors had to learn how to treat patients much faster so they wouldn't die of the severe injuries and infections and they could be sent back to action as soon as possible.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Medicine on the Western Front
Edexcel WW1 Western Front
The Big Beast Revision Set - Medicine on…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
THEME 3: INDIVIDUAL AND CIVIL RIGHTS
4) EFFECT OF THATCHERISM ON POLITICS AND PARTY DEV…
2) THATCHER AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR
3) THATCHER POLITICAL AND SOCIAL DIVISION