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IT Foundations: Storage Devices and Power Supplies

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What are the three components of a hard drive?
Controller, Hard disk, and Host adapter
What does a controller component on a hard drive do?
Component controls the drive.
The controller chip controls how the drive operates and how the data is encoded onto the platters. It controls how the data sends signals to the various motors in the drive and receives signals from the sensors inside the drive.
What does the Host bus adapter component on a hard drive do?
This is the translator, converting signals from the controller to signals that the computer can understand. Most motherboards today incorporate the host adapter into the motherboard's circuitry, offering headers for drive-cable connection
What is Warm-swappable and Hot-swappable?
Hot-swappable devices can be removed while the power to the system is still on. Warm-swappable devices need to be stopped in the operating system before being removed.
____________ is a storage component that contains flash memory and a flash memory controller integrated onto the same silicon die.
embedded Multi-Media Controller (eMMC)
What are the parts of a hard drive?
Platters, Read/write heads, Tracks, Sectors, Cylinders, and clusters (allocation units)
What is a sector in a hard drive?
Sectors are the magnetic domains that represent the smallest units of storage on the disk's platters.
How many bytes does a magnetic-drive sector commonly store?
Magnetic-drive sectors commonly store only 512 bytes (½KB) of data each
What is CHS when referring to a hard drive?
Cylinder/heads/sectors
What does the Hard drive component on a hard drive do?
This is the physical storage medium. Hard disk drive systems store information on small discs (from under 1 inch to 5 inches in diameter), also called platters, stacked together and placed in an enclosure.
What two categories are SSD separated into?
Volatile DRAM-based and nonvolatile flash-based.
Which is faster DRAM-based SSDs or Flash-based SSDs?
DRAM-based SSDs.
What are the output voltages that have been commonly produced by PC power supplies over the years?
A PC's power supply produces +3.3VDC, +5VDC, -5VDC, +12VDC, and -12VDC from a 110VAC input.
What are the disk sizes for each format?
CD SS (includes recordable versions)
DVD-R/RW SS, SL
DVD+R/RW SS, SL
DVD-R, DVD+R DS, SL
DVD-R SS, DL
DVD+R SS, DL
DVD+R DS, DL
BD-R/RE SS, SL
BD-R/RE SS, DL
BD-R/RE DS, DL
CD SS (includes recordable versions): 650MB, 700MB, 800MB, 900MB

DVD-R/RW SS, SL: 4.71GB (4.7GB)

DVD+R/RW SS, SL: 4.70GB (4.7GB)

DVD-R, DVD+R DS, SL: 9.4GB

DVD-R SS, DL: 8.54GB (8.5GB)

DVD+R SS, DL: 8.55GB (8.5GB)

DVD+R DS, DL: 17.1GB

BD-R/RE SS, SL: 25GB

BD-R/RE SS, DL: 50GB

BD-R/RE DS, DL: 100GB
What is RAID?
Redundant Array of Independent Disks,
It's a way of combining the storage power of more than one hard disk for a special purpose, such as increased performance or fault tolerance
What are the commonly known RAID levels?
RAID 0, RAID 1, and RAID 5.
Which RAID level is for fault tolerance?
RAID 1
Which RAID level is for disk stripping?
RAID 0
Which RAID level has fault tolerance and disk stripping?
RAID10
Which RAID level combines the benefits of RAID 0 and 1, but doesn't offer fault tolerance?
RAID 5
What is the benefit of raid 6?
It has the same features of RAID 5, but it allows you to lose two disks.
How many drives is required for each RAID level?
RAID 0:2 , RAID 1: 2 , RAID 5: 4 ,RAID 6: 4, RAID 10: 4
What is the primary use for Tape drives?
They're primarily used for batch archival storage, not interactive storage.
What are the different capacities for each format below:
Format Name

Quarter-inch Cartridge (QIC)

Digital Linear Tape (DLT)

Eight Millimeter (Data8, Exabyte)

Digital Audio Tape (DAT)/Digital Data Storage (DDS)

Linear Tape-Open (LTO)
Quarter-inch Cartridge (QIC)

200KB to over a gigabyte

Digital Linear Tape (DLT)

Up to 800GB

Eight Millimeter (Data8, Exabyte)

Up to 60GB

Digital Audio Tape (DAT)/Digital Data Storage (DDS)

Up to 300GB, native

Linear Tape-Open (LTO)

Up to 2.5TB (up to 48TB planned)
RAID systems benefit from devices and bays with a single connector that contains both power and data connections instead of two separate connectors. This is known as _____________.
Single Connector Attachment (SCA)
What voltage power does a 15-pin SATA power connect have?
three +3.3v, three +5v, and three +12v leads interleaved with two sets of three ground leads.
___________ replaced the 75W 6-pin connector with a 150W 8-pin connector.
ATX12V 2.2
___________, this 6-pin connector was specifically designed to give additional dedicated power to the PCIe adapters that required it. It provided a 75W power source to such devices.
ATX12V 2.1
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