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2nd Test Review
Terms in this set (102)
classification based on common ancestry
Pertaining to a taxon derived from a single ancestral species that gave rise to no species in any other taxa. (Includes only one branch)
pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors (includes one branch plus 1 organism)
Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants. (Same branch minus 1 organism)
monophyletic group (clade)
Hypothesis for evolution that assumes that the phylogenic tree with the fewest evolutionary events is the most accurate.
A principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the one that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time.
one chromosome may have 2 copies of a gene or genes due to unequal crossing over
gene duplication causes
more opportunity for evolutionary change
Groups of related genes in an organism's genome.
are the result of a speciation event and are found in different species
result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the same genome. Represent divergence within a species.
The divergence of a species can be described genetically by
The divergence among current species of the same genome
5 kingdoms are
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
3 domains are
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Structural and functional adaptations that contribute to prokaryotes success are
cell wall, peptoglycan, capsule, endospores, fimbraie
protein and sugar that make up bacteria cell walls
A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
A thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.
hair like attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes
Prokaryotic movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus
3. Which of the following would be the least useful in determining the relationships among various species?
a. A comparison of DNA base sequences
b. Homologous structures
d. Amino acid sequences of proteins
e. Analogous structures
d: Amino acid sequences of proteins
Are archaea more closely related to bacteria or eukarya?
Photosynthetic prokaryotes posses
Aerobic prokaryotes posses
small independently replicating rings of DNA
Bacteria reproduce via
Prokaryotes generally have
high genetic variation
The high genetic variation of prokaryotes is due to
rapid reproduction and more common mutations; and genetic recombination
The three methods of genetic recombination in prokaryotes are
transformation, transduction and conjugation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed when foreign DNA is picked up
viruses (bacteriophages) carry genes from one host to another
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer. (DNA is transfered between 2 prokaryotes)
The classic experiment that exemplifies transformation
The Griffith Experiment: Mice were injected with S,R, heat killed S, Heat killed R and finally heat killed S with live R cells.
The classic experiment that exemplifies transduction
The Hershey Chase Experiment: bacteriophages infect bacteria with their own DNA but also pick up pieces of host DNA
Conjugation is done in prokaryotes with
a pilus (a long tube interconnecting both prokaryotes and allowing DNA transfer)
Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as
NH3, H2S or Fe 2+; these chemicals show that chemoautotrophs like in uncommon usually extreme habitats.
bacteria that is unable to survive in the presence of oxygen
bacteria that can live with or without oxygen
Convert Nitrogen to Ammonia, some bacteria have this ability
Cooperation between prokaryotes allows them to use environmental resources they could not use as individual cells
____________ has played a huge role in the evolution of prokaryotes
horizontal gene transfer
horizontal gene transfer
The transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchange, viral activity, and perhaps fusions of different organisms.
methods of horizontal gene transfer
conjugation, transformation, transduction
Archaea that live in extreme environments.
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
both species benefit
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
toxic substances that bacteria secrete into their environment
released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down (gram negative)
examples of endotoxins include
samonella and typhoid fever
examples of exotoxins include
Order of ecology largest to smallest (most inclusive to least)
global, landscape, ecosystem, community, population, organismal
Most significant influence on the distribution of organisms on land is
2. Which of the following choices includes all of the others in creating global terrestrial climates?
A.Differential heating of Earth's surface
C.Global wind patterns
D.Evaporation of water from ocean surfaces
E.Earth's rotation on its axis
A:Differential heating of Earth's surface
Desert Biomes occur consistently around
30 degrees North or South (latitude)
The tropics are caused by
Rising moist air that releases moisture (over equator)
Deserts (arid regions) are caused by
Descending areas of dry air, moisture is absorbed not released
Regional and local effects on climate include•
Seasonality, Cycles in day length, solar radiation, and temperature, and Local environmental shifts
leeward side of a mountain
dry and warm due to compression (high pressure)
Windward side of a mountain
cool and moist due to expansion (low pressure)
Global climate change affects the
distribution of organisms
Birds, insects and plants are among the most affected by
The transition from one type of habitat or ecosystem to another, such as the transition from a forest to a grassland.
Biomes are characterized by
-vegetation type in terrestrial biomes
-physical environment in aquatic biomes
a plot of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in a particular region
convergent evolution occurs or has occured
in similar biomes (think of the example: cactus in south america, vs the one in north africa)
Tropical Forest Biome
High to very high rainfall, hot or very hot in all seasons. Huge diversity of plants,
An extremely dry area with little water and few plants
An area of grassland with scattered trees and bushes, fire and drought adapted
A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers. Fire and drought adapted
biome characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species Fire and drought adapted
northern coniferous forest (taiga)
A terrestrial biome characterized by long, cold winters and dominated by cone-bearing trees.
temperate broadleaf forest
a biome located throughout midlatitude regions where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large, broadleaf deciduous trees
a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate.
permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone
bottom of an aquatic ecosystem; consists of sand and sediment and supports its own community of organisms
open water above the ocean floor
deepest, very cold region of the open ocean
a shallow zone in a freshwater habitat where light reaches the bottom and nurtures plants
Area of ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelf
A lake lacking in plant nutrients and having a large amount of dissolved Oxygen
nutrient rich lake, that has little oxygen but lots of plant life
Fish will die under
eutrophic conditions (low oxygen)
Agal blooms are a sign of a
a lowland area, such as a marsh or swamp, that is saturated with moisture, especially when regarded as the natural habitat of wildlife.
Wetlands are important ecosystems because they:
recharge ground water, improve water quality, store water during floods, are carbon sinks
Wetlands and estuaries are
Corals exist in a symbiotic relationship with
Coral bleaching occurs when
the algae in the coral die or leave the coral due to high temperatures
movement of individuals or their gametes away from origin or areas of high density
the geographic area in which organisms occur
All the living organisms that inhabit an environment
a nonliving part of an ecosystem