Ch. 7 Alcohol
Terms in this set (88)
A group of organic chemicals in which one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups are attached to the carbon
atoms in place of the hydrogen atoms
Type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages
•Considered safe for consumption
•Excess can be toxic, can damage the body, and can be
Type of alcohol found in food and in the body as part of the triglyceride molecule
Type of alcohol found in antifreeze; poisonous
Type of alcohol found in rubbing alcohol, poisonous
Process by which yeast converts sugars in grains or fruits into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Yeast metabolizes _________into __________and
glucose,ethanol, carbon dioxide
Fermentation stops when the alcohol content reaches the level the yeast can tolerate. What is the percent?
11 to 14 percent.
Single celled organisms that metabolize glucose?
Brewer's yeast can tolerate up to what % alcohol?
Wine yeast is still active at ______% and some strains can tolerate up to _______%.
Process in which fermented liquid is heated and ethanol vaporizes. Vapors are collected and form liquor.
Concentrated alcohol beverage formed from distillation.
liquor or distilled spirits
Number that reflects twice the alcohol content in the beverage.
80 proof liquor contains how much alcohol?
a measure of the amount of ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages
Drinking patterns that are considered acceptable by society.
What level of drinking is the amount of alcohol that puts individuals at the lowest risk for alcohol-related problems?
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 recommendations for alcohol for men/ women?
Males: Two drinks per day
Females: One drink per day
A standard drink is defined as
12 ounces of beer
5 ounces of wine
1.5 ounces of liquor
Is social drinking the same as moderate drinking?
No, people can over consume even in socially acceptable situations.
Reasons why people drink.
--Social, ceremonial, and traditional
-Historically, wine and beer were safer to drink than water.
- Relaxation, celebration, and social bonding
- Signify emergence into adulthood
- Advertising influences beverage choic
A standard drink contains how much alcohol? (can be 12 oz beer, 5oz wine, or 1.5 oz liquor)
Does red wine reduce the risk of heart disease?
May reduce the accumulation of oxidized LDL on the arterial walls
• May inhibit the stickiness of platelets in the blood
•May increase HDLs
Some studies show that the alcohol, not the compounds in red wine, provides health benefits.
-It appears to only benefit males > 45 years and females > 55 years
Can alcohol be stored in the body?
How is alcohol absorbed (what type of diffusion) and where does this primarily happen?
simple diffusion through the gastric mucosa.
-Majority is absorbed through the duodenum of the
An alcohol metabolizing enzyme found in the stomach and liver that converts ethanol to acetaldehyde?
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
What percent of alcohol is absorbed in the stomach?
What are 4 factors that affect how quickly alcohol is absorbed?
gender, age, ethnicity, amount of alcohol
Which cells secrete alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)?
What 2 things convert alcohol to acetaldehyde?
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and niacin (B3)
The longer alcohol is in the stomach means what for metabolism?
more time to metabolize =
less alcohol in the blood and brain
A partially full or full stomach does what for alcohol?
-keeps alcohol away from the stomach lining
-Fat slows peristalsis (muscle contractions)
- Carbs slow absorption through the stomach lining.
Why do women feel the narcotic effect of alcohol sooner than men do?
Females have 20 to 30 percent less ADH
and less body wate
What happens to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in women and men as they age?
Which organ is the main site of alcohol metabolism?
One of the 1st compounds produced in the metabolism of ethanol.
Amount that can be metabolized per hour is limited by _________and ________.
body mass and liver si
2 pathway that the liver can metabolize alcohol
1. alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) pathway
2. microsomal ethanol oxidizing system
What steps are involved with the ADH pathway of alcohol metabolism?
- Step one: ADH and NAD+ remove hydrogens from alcohol to form acetaldehyde.
- Step two: Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) removes more hydrogen and forms acetate.
- Acetate continues through metabolic pathways to form energy or is converted to a fatty acid and stored as fat
Which pathway of alcohol metabolism is used when there is too much alcohol and the liver
enzymes cannot keep up?
microsomal ethanol oxidizing system
Explain the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) for metabolizing alcohol in the liver.
-Person drinks too much
- alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) can't keep up so MEOS takes over.
- MEOS is an enzyme primarily for metabolizing drugs and foreign compounds.
- If drugs and alcohol are taken together, MEOS has to process alcohol first.
-This can build up lethal amounts of drugs in the blood.
a primary alcohol metabolizing enzyme found in the liver that converts acetaldehyde to acetate
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)
2nd major enzyme system for metabolizing alcohol in the liver?
microsomal ethanol oxidizing system MEOS
small vesicles in the cytoplasm of liver cells where oxidative metabolism of alcohol takes place
What accounts for an increase in alcohol tolerance?
The increase of enzymes in MEOS system. Liver can process alcohol faster.
What is the difference between the MEOS and ADH pathways?
MEOS takes place in microsomes and ADH takes place in cytosol.
What percentage of alcohol is metabolized by the liver and what percent is excreted through lungs, skin, urine?
95% through liver
5% lungs, skin, urine
Why is a Breathalyzer test effective?
Amount of alcohol expelled through the lungs correlates with the amount of alcohol in the blood
Amount of alcohol in the blood
-Measured in grams of alcohol per deciliter
-Expressed as a percentag
blood alcohol concentration (BAC)
Which area of the brain is affected by alcohol first?
Cerebral cortex- How does alcohol affect this area of the brain?
-individual becomes more talkative,
less inhibited, has more confidence, judgment is impaired
- area of the brain that receives senses
Hippocampus- How does alcohol affect this area of the brain?
-prevents short-term memories from
becoming long-term memories; blacking out
- memory and emotions
individual loses ability to walk in a
- balance and mov't
impaired breathing and heart rate
Which part of the brain could be affected by alcohol to the extent of causing death?
Which mechanism causes drinkers to unconsciousness?
reticular activating system
Formula for BAC blood alcohol concentration
[ (# of drinks/2) x (gc 7.5 or 9 / lbs)]
- (.017x hours)
What are 2 metabolic products that causes alcohol consumption to be harmful?
acid and acetaldehye
Cause of a hangover?
high levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and congeners, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances
Fermentation by-products or additives in alcohol that may contribute to hangover symptoms
What are some examples of congeners?
tannins found in wine, dark liquor
What speeds up the absorption of alcohol?
carbonation in beer mixed with congeners in liquor
Continuing to consume alcohol even through the behavior has created social, legal and/ or health problems.
A chronic disease characterized by:
•Higher tolerance for alcohol
•Can't control or limit intake once drinking starts
•A developed dependency on alcohol; AKA alcohol dependence
The consumption of 5+ drinks for men and 4+ drinks for women in 2 hours.
When the BAC rises to the point that a person's central nervous system is affected and his or her breathing and heart rate are interrupted.
What's the illegal US BAC?
.08 or higher
What's the average age Americans first drink?
What are 5 risk factors for developing alcoholism?
- 50 percent genetic
- Home life
- Drinking habits of family and friends
- Social pressures
- Access to alcohol
A state of of being malnourished due to lack of consuming essential nutrients.
A severe brain disorder associated with alcohol consumption; mental confusion and uncontrolled muscle movement due to thiamin deficiency's effect on brain function
A state of malnutrition from alcohol interference with nutrient metabolism
How can alcohol can interact with hormones?
-Interferes with insulin and glucagon
-Affects parathyroid hormone and other bone
-Increased estrogen levels and possible
increased risk of breast cancer
-Affects reproductive hormones and is
associated with male and female sexual
dysfunction and infertility
A degenerative liver condition that occurs in 3 stages.
alcohol liver disease
What are the 3 stages of Alcohol liver disease?
Stage 1-Fatty liver
• Occurs after a few days of excessive drinking
Stage 2-Alcoholic hepatitis
• Liver becomes inflamed
• Liver cells die and are replaced with scar tissue.
• More than 50 % die within 4 years
An excess of fat in the blood caused by Stage 1 of alcohol liver disease.
Stage 1 of alcohol liver disease, in which fat begins to build up in the liver cells.
Stage 2 of alcohol liver disease, in which the liver becomes inflamed.
Stage 3 of alcohol liver disease, in which liver cells die and are replaced by scar tissue
Damaging products produced by intestinal bacteria that travel in the blood to the liver and initiate the release of cytokines.
Substances that damage liver cells and lead to scarring.
3 ways Alcohol can harm the digestive organs
-Relaxes the esophageal sphincter
-Can cause pancreatitis
a disturbance in the beating and rhythm of the heart; can be caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
Condition in which the heart becomes thin and weak and is unable to pump blood throughout the body; also called disease of the heart muscle.
inflammation of the lining of the stomach
most severe FASD disorder resulting from the damage of alcohol exposure in utero
•Physical, mental, and behavioral abnormalities
fetal alcohol syndrome
A range of conditions that can occurn in children who are exposed to alcohol in utero.
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders