Archaeology / Anthropology ANTH 203 Exam 2

Covering chapters 7,8,9,10,11 from Archaeology Kelly and Thomas Text.
STUDY
PLAY
The number of attributes recorded during artifact analysis:
Is generally limited to those that are necessary to accomplish the purpose of the typology
After excavation, recovered artifacts must be conserved. Conservation can involve
A simple cleaning of the artifacts and
Stabilization of artifacts to prevent decomposition and
Reconstruction of artifacts, such as broken pottery vessels.
(the answer is all of these)
Total length, axial length, maximum width, basal width, maximum thickness, midsection thickness, proximal shoulder angle, notch opening, and neck width are examples of projectile point:
Attributes
The following were concerns regarding the excavation and conservation of the Hunley:
The location of the Hunley was a mystery until a magnetometer was used to locate it and
The ship would have quickly corroded unless it was sprayed with water after it was raised and
Keeping the carbonate layer intact was critical to the preservation of the vessel.
The answer is all of the above. All of these things were concerns.
The "Frison Effect" explains the change in the shape of stone tools as a result of:
Tool resharpening
What happened to the remains of Ishi, the Yahi Indian who lived at the University of California's museum in San Francisco and demonstrated traditional arrow-making and fire-starting for museum visitors?
All of these things happened to Ishi's remains:
His body was autopsied by the university's medical center after his death in spite of his wishes that no autopsy be performed and
His brain was sent to the Smithsonian Institution so that it could be put "to scientific use", where it sat for nearly 85 years and
His remains were returned to California's Pit River tribe in 2000, and buried in a secret location.
Exploring the possible ways to make a projectile point is an example of ____, while observing the way a living group of people make projectile points is an example of ____.
Experimental archaeology/ethnoarchaeology
If you are conducting archaeological excavation in an area where houses were made in a way similar to that inhabited by Madagascar's Mikea, and you find a house structure that has very consistent post diameters (as determined by the post holes left behind, now filled with decayed wood), what could you infer about the house based on ethnoarchaeological research?
It was likely a permanent house.
A thin, sharp sliver of stone removed from a larger piece of rock during the flintknapping process is a:
Flake
Inferring that prehistoric kivas had the same function as kivas used by Puebloan societies today is an example of:
Both formal and relational analogies
A geologist observes glacial moraines and striations in an area that is today not glaciated. The geologist interprets those features as evidence of past glacial activity. He or she is utilizing:
All of these:
Middle level theory and
The principle of uniformitarianism and
A relational analogy.
Newcomer designed blind experiments to test the accuracy of Keeley's high-power microscopy method of identifying stone tool microwear. These experiments:
Established the validity of Keeley's high-power microscopic method; Keeley was able to correctly identify the microwear on many of the experimental stone tools.
Ethnoarchaeological research among the Mikea suggests that the more permanent a settlement is:
The greater range of features it will contain
Taphonomic research at the Hudson-Meng bison bonebed in northwest Nebraska showed that:
Natural processes such as incomplete burial and subsequent exposure to sunlight could have caused the tops of the bison skulls to decompose.
Trying to move stones weighing several tons using only the tools and materials that the ancient Egyptians had available to them, with the goal of determining whether or not Egyptian technology was sufficiently sophisticated to produce monuments like the pyramids, is an example of:
Experimental Archaeology
A faunal assemblage consists of:
All of the following:
Animal bones from kill or butchering sites and
Bones from hunted animals that were brought back to camps or villages and
Animal bones that accumulated at a site due to natural processes (e.g., brought into the site by carnivores or raptors).
The main purpose of a zooarchaeological comparative collection is:
To help zooarchaeologists identify archaeofaunas.
An archaeologist involved in analyzing and interpreting plant remains from archaeological sites in order to understand past interactions between human populations and plants would be a:
Paleoethnobotanist.
Macrobotanical remains are likely to be preserved if they were:
All of the following:
Deposited in arid climates or dry caves and
Deposited in waterlogged contexts, such as wells or shipwrecks and
Burned and carbonized.
Lipids can provide information about the types of foods people consumed prehistorically. In order to identify food residues, lipids can be extracted from:
Cooking vessels
Organic substances such as fats, oils, and waxes that resist mixing with water and are found in both plant and animal tissues are called
Lipids
If an archaeologist is analyzing tiny silica particles that were originally contained in plants, he or she is analyzing
Phytoliths
What would the MNI be for the following hypothetical assemblage of adult bison bones: 4 left humeri, 2 left femura, 4 right femura, 5 skulls, and 6 left scapulae?
6 (because you have 6 left scapulae)
The nests of wood rats are useful for paleoenvironmental reconstruction because they can preserve a record of environmental change for:
Thousands of years.
Studies of mtDNA haplogroups of living Native Americans have found:
That three haplogroups present in living Native Americans are also found in northern Asia, pointing to an Asian origin for Native Americans AND
That haplogroup B, present in living Native Americans, appears today in south central China and coastal southern Asia but does not appear in northern Asia, possibly indicating a separate migratory wave from Asia.
Schoeninger interpreted the greater range of nitrogen isotope ratios in the Stillwater burial population compared to the Pecos or Ontario populations as reflecting:
Greater dietary variability in the Stillwater population than in the Pecos and Ontario populations
The "Out of Africa" hypothesis of modern human origins suggests that the earliest modern humans fanned out of Africa to replace other hominids in other parts of the Old World roughly:
200,000 years ago.
If a person goes to the natural source area of a raw material and either extracts the material him- or herself or trades for it or for finished products, he or she is engaging in:
Direct acquisition.
Ethnographic data from a variety of societies around the world has shown which of the following about men's and women's roles in ceramic manufacture?
When pottery is made by hand, it is usually made by women; when pottery is made on a wheel, it is usually made by men.