CPO Life Science Chapter 10 Reproduction
Terms in this set (44)
the process of one cell dividing into two daughter cell
Complex cell with a nucleus and many membrane-bound organelles
cells without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
no nucleus, their DNA exists in the cytoplasm in a circle.
structure made of DNA and associated proteins in nucleus of a eukaryotic cell but Not prokaryotes
the period of time from the beginning of one cell division to the beginning of the next.
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
the stage of the cell cycle that occurs between cell divisions.
the part of the cell cycle when DNA is dividing. it creates genetically identical daughter cell and occurs in all body cells.
the process of cell division where the nucleus divides into two nuclei
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
the process of cell division (occurs after mitosis) where the cytoplasm and its organelles divide into two daughter cells.
the formation of new organisms of the same species.
when cell divides to become 2 new organisms (single cell organisms)
a type of reproduction that requires only one parent.
a type of reproduction that involves special cells called sex cells.
When egg (haploid) and sperm haploid) unite to create a zygote (diploid)
special cells that contain half the number of chromosomes as body cells.
egg and sperm that are both haploid
process of DNA being split 2x to create haploid sex cells.
occurs only with sex cells
cell division that produces sex cells with half the number of chromosomes.
a double set of chromosomes.
cell with 2 copies of each chromosome
a half set of chromosomes
cell with only one copy of each chromosome.
a fertilized egg.
the union of egg and sperm.
an organism in its earliest stage of development.
the process of cell specialization.
What is a daughter cell?
is a reproduced cell from a parent cell.
(One of the cells formed after cytokinesis
A cell that has been split previously).
2nd phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. spindle fibers are attached.
chromosomes are not visible.
nucleolus disappears before mitosis begins
the 1st stage of mitosis
when chromosomes are condensing (visible) and nuclear envelope is dissolving
the 4th/final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
3rd phase--- chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
The longest stage of the cell cycle is
The shortest stage of the cell cycle is
What is the end result of mitosis and cytokinesis?
two new daughter cell form
the protein that attach to chromosomes and pull them into the centrioles at the poles
structure found in animal cells, composed of an array of microtubules around which the microtubules around which the mitotic spindle is organized.
the area in the plant cell where a new cell wall is forming at the end of mitosis to divide the 2 new cells apart.
when 2 sex cell (egg and sperm) come together to create a diploid (xygote) cell.
two chromosomes that contain genetic material for the same genes, but because one is from and one is from dad they can have different version.
list the stages of the cell cycle for a normal human body cell in the proper order.
interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
Compare mitosis and meiosis Purpose
mitosis to create 2 identical copies (daughter cells) of all cells in the body except sex cells.
Meiosis --to create 4 haploid sex cells which contain copies of DNA that are genetically different
Compare mitosis and meiosis: # beginning cells
1 for each
Compare mitosis and meiosis: # ending cells
mitosis---2 (genetically identical dipiloid cells)
meiosis--4 (genetically different halploid cells)
Compare mitosis and meiosis: number of chromosomes for a human cell
mitosis--46 for diploid cells
meiosis--23 for haploid cells
Compare mitosis and meiosis: are created genetically identical?
Why must sex cell have the half the number of chromosomes as body cells?
so that DNA doesn't continue to double every generation (when each sex cell has one copy of each chromosome, then the resulting zygote has 2 copies, one from each parent) which is the normal diploid cell amount.
describe the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction (include one type of organism)
Sexual--making new genetic combinations by an egg and sperm combining. most animals.
Asexual---involves the DNA being copied and then split into two (each going into a new cell) result is genetical identical cells.
Draw the phases of meiosis---1st division
1st division--homologues pairs of chromosomes separate
before a cell divides: chromosomes double, line up along the center of cell, spindle fiber attach and pull the pairs apart, 2 cells forms, each cell contains one doubled chromosome from each homologues pair
Draw the phases of meiosis---2 nd division
the doubled chromosomes are split apart.
doubled chromosomes line up in center, spindles pull chromosome apart, 2 halves move to opposite side of cell
Draw the phases of meiosis--final result
4 sex cells are formed. each with half the number of chromosomes for the original parent.