304 terms

MTEL General Curriculum

STUDY
PLAY
Marie Curie
Studied radioactivity. Won Nobel Prize for physics and chemistry. First woman to win one and first person to win two. Discovered the element radium.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
Created the periodic table of elements.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Came up with the idea that the Earth and other planets revolve around the sun. At the time, people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe.
Francis Crick and James Watson
Worked out the structure of the DNA molecule (double helix)
Carl Linnaeus
Developed a mode for classifying animals (kingdom, phylum, species, etc.)
Charles Darwin
Theory of evolution by natural selection after his journey aboard the HMS Beagle in 1831. Studied finches on the Galapagos Islands.
Albert Einstein
Developed theory of relativity about the relationships between time, space, matter, and energy. E=MC2 (E=energy, M=mass, C= speed of light)
Michael Faraday
Discovered that magnets can be used to create electricity in copper wires (electromagnetism). This led to the electric generators, etc.
Johannes Kepler
Famous for his three laws of planetary motion
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk who worked with pea plants and discovered the laws of heredity
Sir Isaac Newton
Worked out basic laws of motion and gravity, invented calculus. Used math to explain the laws of nature.
Louis Pasteur
father of germ theory and bacteriology. Invented pasteurization to sterilize liquids (i.e.milk)
Jean Piaget: Cognitive-Development Theory
Learning occurs in stages characterized by particular ways of thinking; children acquire knowledge through active construction and multiple opportunities to connect new ideas to previous experiences.
ex. a teacher encourages student to select a subject they are interested in for reasearch.
Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory
Imitation models. Learning occurs through observation and imitation of models; as children become older, they become more selective in the behaviors they imitate.
Lev Vygotsky: Sociocultural Theory
theories having to do with scaffolding. Learning occurs in eight distinct stages of psychosocial development as children use new skills and attitudes to resolve conflicts related to psychological needs. concept of a zone proximal development can be described as the difference between what children can understand on their own and what they can understand with adult support.
Concrete Operational State of Cognitive develpment
example would be planning and executing a strategy for building a model.
Kohlberg
moral development
ex. respecting the rules
Annie Jump Cannon
studied the stars and light emitted from the stars.
dyslexia
persistent condition most often associated with difficulty learning to read
IEP purpose of sending a letter to a parent
to seek legal consent for carrying out the evaluation
Law of Superposition
rock layers that are younger will be deposited on the top of rock layers that are older. Guiding principle of stratigraphy (study of geological layers)
Stratigraphy
The study of geological or soil layers. Determines the relative ages of archaeological materials.
Law of Original Horizontality
...
Law of Lateral Continuity
...
Cross-Cutting Relationship
...
Hydrogen Bond
attractions between positive and negative parts of the molecule
Solvent
Able to dissolve in water
Temperature
measure of kinetic energy of molecules
Cohesion
Molecules stick together. ex. water sticks to itself
Adhesion
molecules stick to dissimilar surfaces. ex. water sticks to an object
how areas composed of sand and gravel were formed
formed by materials that were deposited by continental glaciers
Lithosphere
The outermost layer of the Earth's surface. Divided into pieces called tectonic plates.
Plate Tectonics
The study of the lithosphere.
Information about Fossils
Buried bones prevent fossils from being eaten.
Bone turns to minerals and minerals turn to rocks.
Water environments are better suited to the creation of fossils.
Major Seas: 4 most important
South China (below Asia)
Caribbean (btwn N. Am and S. Am)
Mediterranean (above Africa)
Gulf of Mexico (L of FLA)
Rock Cycle: Sedimentary Rocks
Sediments are pressed and cemented together (compacted).
Rock Cycle: Metamorphic Rocks
Undergo heat and pressure.
Rock Cycle: Igneous Rocks
melted rock forms magma which cools and hardens (lava cooling).
nucleas
the brain of the cell. controls division and growth of cells.
mitochondria
rod shaped organelles that provide energy
Cell Division: Mitosis
Produces 2 exact copies.
Growth and repair/development
Start with 46 chromosomes
Ends with 46 Chromosomes
Mitosis: Prophase
Chromosomes duplicate
Mitosis: Metaphase
Chromosomes align.
Mitosis: Anaphase
Sister chromatids separate creating daughter cells
Cell Division: Meiosis
gametes are created (reproductive cells). Each gamete has 23 chromosomes. Starts with 46 chromosomes and Ends with 23 chromosomes. This creates genetic variability.
Asexual Reproduction
Produces exact clones of the parent (bacteria, unicellular organisms).
Sexual Reproduction
Genes of two parents are mixed. Results in a greater genetic diversity and is an adaptive advantage. Genes from two people create a greater chance of life and better chance to adapt.
Gene
a unit of heredity (eye color)
Allele
Different forms of genes (there are alleles for blue, brown, green eyes).
Homozygous
Same allele for specific traits.
Ex. someone may have received the blue allele from her mother and her father BB, bb
Heterozygous
Different alleles for a specific trait.
Ex. A person could have one brown eyed gene and one blue eye gene Bb.
Genotype
the alleles and genes a person has in his or her DNA. He or she could have blue and brown eye genes.
EX. genes: Bb, BB, bb
Phenotype
The actual expression of the gene. The physical appearance.
EX. The person with blue and brown eye genes will have brown eyes. The phenotype is brown eyes.
Natural Selection and evolutionary changes
the conditions of the environment favor the reproductive success of individuals with certain physical and behavioral characteristics.
Natural Selection:Variation
(Darwin)
Individuals in a population differ from each other
Natural Selection: Heritability
(Darwin)
Variations are inherited from parents
Natural Selection: Overproduction
(Darwin)
Populations produce more offspring than can survive
Natural Selection: Reproductive Advantage
(Darwin)
Some variations allow the organism to have more offspring than others who lack these variations.
Survival of the Fittest
(Darwin)
Living things have certain trates that can help them survive in and adapt to changes in their environment and reproduce. As environments change, organisms either adapt of pass on these adaptations to their offspring, or they die and do not reproduce.
(ex. Imagine a heard of deer. Some of the deer have heavier and thicker coats than others. If there were an ice age, the deer with the heavier coats will be better adapted to the environments and be more successful breeders. Their genes for the heavier coats would increase the future generations)
Why a pesticide might become less effective at controlling insects
Increasing population of pesticide resistant insects have survived in a population
Primary adaptive function of edible fruits produced by flowering plants
aiding with dispersal of seeds
Water Cycle: Evaporation
Happens when the sun heats water turning the liquid to water vapor.
Water Cycle: Condensation
Occurs when water vapor cools and turns into water.
Ex. clouds, dew on morning grass, water on the mirror after you shower
Water Cycle: Precipitation
When the air can't hold the water in clouds, the water falls back to Earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet, or snow
Water Cycle: Runoff
Water from land that runs down into rivers, lakes, and oceans
Water Cycle: Transpiration
When plants lose water from their leaves.
Newton's first law of motion: Inertia
A body in motion stays in motion; a body at rest stays at rest (wont move unless a force is applied to it). An objects inertia is related to mass.
Ex of inertia: the feeling of being pushed back in your seat while rapidly accelerating
Newton's second law of motion
force is equal to mass times velocity
Newton's third law of motion
For each action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Ex. If i jump off a skateboard, it jumps back as I jump forward.
momentum
mass and velocity
acceleration
change in velocity over time
Symbiotic Relationships
a close relationship that has developed between species. There are three different kinds...
1. mutualism
2. commensalism
3. parasitism
Mutualistic Relationship
occur when both species benefit from the symbiotic relationship.
ex. the clown fish and the sea anemone have a mutualistic relationship. The clown fish lives and hides within the poisonous anemone for protection. The fish provides nutrients for his host.
ex. The Nile crocodile and the plover bird. The bird cleans the croc's teeth. The bird gets food and the croc gets free cleaning
Commensalism
occus when one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
Ex. cattle Egret. These birds follow cows and horses around, eating the insects that the large animals stir up. The birds get easy meals while their partners are unaffected.
Parasitism
When one species benefits and the other is harmed.
Ex. fleas, tic, etc.
Competition Between Species
Species compete for a limited resource in the same place at the same time (timing).
Ex .
No Competition:If two plants live side by side but flower at different times of the year, they are not competing because of the time difference
Competition: Barnacles drop from a European cargo ship and take over a rocky shore in Maine.
Magnets
Created from iron when domains (little groupings of mini magnets in the structure of the iron) are all aligned in the same direction
Why does a charge flowing in a lightbulb filament produce light?
the resistance of the filament to the flow of the charge causes it to heat up and produce visible thermal radiation
Development of Integrated circuits
led to smaller faster devices like cell phone.
Vernal/autumnal equinox
moons orbit is closes to the earth
Venus
similar size to earth. Rotates slowly. dense atmosphere.
Uranus
3rd largest planet. Blue
Jupiter
largest planet. helium.
Solar System from nearest to farthest from the sun
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

Pneumonic Device: My Very Eager Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas
Phases of the Moon
The moon does not generate its own light; it reflects light from the sun. The phases of the moon are directly related to the positions of the sun, moon, and earth
New Moon
When the moon is in front of the Earth (between the Earth and the sun) and it cannot reflect light towards the earth. It can't be seen at all.
Full Moon
When the moon is behind the Earth (the Earth is between the sun and the moon) and it can be fully reflected back to the Earth.
Solar Eclipse
The moon blocks the sun; the moon comes directly between the sun and Earth. (Earth, sun, and moon align in the same plant so that the shadow from the moon (or Earth can block the sun (or moon)). Considered rare because the three don't align in the same plane very often
Lunar Eclipse
The moon is blocked by the Earth's shadow; the Earth comes directly between the sun and the moon. Rare because the moon's orbital path is titled relative to the plane of the Earth's solar orbit.
Tides
caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon. The strongest tides are the "spring tide" which occur when the sun and moon are aligned and their pull are the strongest. Occur when at the new moon and the full moon
Seasons
occur because of the tilt of the Earth on its axis and the sun's rays.
Seasons: Summer
Summer in the northern hemisphere, the Earth tilts so that the sun shines directly on the north. The top part of the Earth leans toward the sun which means it receives fore of the sun's energy.
Seasons: Winter
During the winter, the sun is shining directly on the southern hemisphere and indirectly on the northern hemisphere. When the top of the earth is leaning away from the sun, it receives less energy from the sunlight.
Phases of Matter: 4 phases
solid, liquid, gas, (and plasma).
Temperature is the driving force behind the phase a substance is in.
Ex. water can be solid (ice)
liquid (water)
gas (steam or water vapor)
Phases of Matter: Solids
Have a definite shape and volume. The atoms or molecules in a solid are packed closely together. They have a fixed, permanent position in the substance; they don't move. Solids are the coldest and least energetic state.
Phases of Matter: Liquids
Have a definite volume but NOT a definite shape; they take the shape of their containers. The same volume of water will change its shape depending on the glass it's poured into. The molecules move and slide around each other; they flow. Liquid molecules are more energetic and hotter than solids.
Temperature of water in a glass
relates to the movement of water molecules
Phases of Matter: Gases
Have neither definite shape or volume. They molecules that are very far apart. They have lots of energy and will leave any container that is not covered. Gas molecules are very energetic and hot, more so than liquids.
Matter: Physical Change
Physical change to an object does not alter its chemical nature.
ex. cutting paper does not change what the paper is. It is paper before and after the cut. However, burning the paper changes it.
Matter: Chemical Change
cannot change back to it's original form.
ex. burning paper changes it. It becomes soot. It cannot be changed back into paper.
Typically if you add heat to something it will go through a chemical change.
Pesticide resistance
adaptation of organism likely to survive and pass trait to offspring
Chemical Bonding
molecular compound through covalent and ionic bonds
Scientific Method
helps to answer questions about the world. Observe, hypothesize, test, result
Scientific Method: Observation
First step in the scientific method. Information gathered from our senses. Can use tools to help observe
Scientific Method: hypothesis
a testable explanation for the observation
Scientific Method: Controlled Variable
a factor that remains constant during an experiment
Scientific Method: Control Group
used for comparison in an experiment. This group is not experimented upon, just observed
Scientific Method: Independent Variable
a factor controlled by the scientists and might affect the outcome of the experiment.
Scientific Method: Dependent variable
this is what the scientists are measuring. It depends on the independent variables. This is what you care about.
Scientific Method: Validity
means that your experiment actually is measuring what you think it measures, not something you didn't consider or know about
Scientific Method: Reliability
means that your experiment is able to be replicated. If experiments are not able to be replicated by other scientists, they will not be accepted by the scientific community.
Photosynthesis
Pants make their own food by using carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and sunlight to create sugar and oxygen.

carbon dioxide+water+sunlight=sugar+oxygen
Cellular Respiration
how cells creat energy. Cells take sugar and make energy in the form of ATP. The mitochondria of the cell takes sugar and oxygen and turns it into carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

Sugar+Oxygen-->Carbon Dioxide+water+Energy
Difference between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis PRODUCES carbon dioxide

Cellular Respiration USES carbon dioxide
Heat Transfer: Conduction
Requires direct contact.
ex. a spoon in boiling water will be hot
Heat Transfer: Convection
Rising of hot air (above)
ex. if you put your hands above a fire they will warm up.
Heat Transfer: Radiation
Heat is given off in all directions.
ex. earth being heated by the sun
Light Reflection
Bounces off an object
Light Refraction
Appears to look bent because of light changing speed when it enters a different material
ex. glasses
ex. a pencil in a glass of water appears to look bent at the entry of water.
Eutrophication
Occurs when an excess of nutrients enter a lake. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer cause there to be more algae in the lake.

runoff goes into lakes and infects algae-->algae dies and bacteria eats algae-->decomposition uses up all the oxygen in the water-->bacteria needs O2-->the fish suffocate and die==>The lake is dead
Digestion:Mouth
Starts in the mouth with chewing. Saliva breaks down food and moves from the throat into the esophagus then to the stomach.
Digestion: Stomach
Holds and stores food-->It mixes and grinds it-->Acids aid digestion-->food turns to a liquid and moves to the small intestine
Digestion: Small Intestine
Breaks down food and absorbs nutrients-->enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver help the small intestine do it's job.
Digestion: Large Intestine
Removes excess water from stool and holds it until its ready for elimination
Digestion: Liver
produces bile and detoxifies the blood. We need this to live
Digestion: Pancreas
Produces digestive enzymes as well as important hormones such as insulin
Digestion: Gall Bladder
Stores bile that has been produced by the liver
Circulatory System
Transports nutrients to cells. Also carries waste produced by the cells, like carbon dioxide. These materials are carried in the blood.
Circulatory System: Heart
Pumps blood throughout the body.
Circulatory System: Arteries
Carry blood that has been oxygenated by the lungs away from the heart and to all the cells of the body.
Circulatory System: Veins
Return oxygen-poor blood to the heart
Circulatory System: Oxygen-poor blood
is pumped to the lungs and reoxygenated while carbon dioxide is removed and exhaled
Circulatory System: Red Blood Cells
Carry oxygen in the hemoglobin

*Iron is CRITICAL in this process. Low levels of iron lead to anemia
Circulatory System: Blue Blood
Right side of the heart
Superior
Lungs (oxygenated)
Circulatory System: Red Blood
Left side of the heart
Oxygenated blood (from lungs)
Out aorta to the body
Respiratory System (lungs)
the act of breathing. Taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide
Respiratory System: Breathing
Air-->larynx (voice box)-->trachea (windpipe)-->enters lungs through the bronchi (bronchi branches to the right and left of the lungs)-->air branches into smaller bronchi and bronchiole tubes and alveoli (air sacs)
Biomes
A large region characterized by a type of climate and plant and animal community.
Biomes: Desert
-little to no vegetation
-high or low temperatures
-less than 25 cm of rainfall a year

locations: S. America, N. America, S. Africa, Asia, Australia
Biomes: Grasslands
- Few trees
-Large grazing animals
-moderate rainfall
-savannas, prairies

locations: Europe, N. America, S. America, S. Africa
Biomes: Tropical Rainforest
-humid and warm
-most bio diverse
-most biomass
-located around the equator
-250-400 cm of rain per year

locations: S. America, S. Asia, Africa
Biomes: Taiga
-short summers
-pine trees
-average temperatures below freezing
-just below the Arctic circle
-northern coniferous forest

locations: Canada, Alaska, N. Russia
Biomes: Tundra
-treeless
-cold, frozen
-permafrost (permanently frozen solid)
-mostly north of Arctic Circle

locations: Canada, Russia
Biomes: Deciduous Forest
-hot summers and cold winters
-temperate forests
-75 to 125 cm rainfall

locations: N. America, Australia, Europe
Food Chain: Trophic Levels
Each level of the food chain
Food Chain: Producers
Are able to produce their own food
ex. plants
Food Chain: Consumers
3 types: Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore
Are unable to produce their own food. They must consume other plants and animals.
ex. rabbit, tiger, etc.
Food Chain: Herbivore (consumer)
Eat only plans
Food Chain: Carnivore (consumer)
Eat only animals
Food Chain: Omnivore (consumer)
Eat both plants and animals
Food Chain: Decomposer
Eat decaying matter. They break down and release nutrients into the soil.
ex. fungi, bacteria
Windward side of Mountains
-Wetter than leeward side
-Moist air moves up the mountain-->moisture condenses into clouds and it rains on the windward side
Leeward side of the Mountain
-Dry air travels to the leeward side
-desert like
Life Cycle of a Frog
Egg-->tadpole-->froglet-->frog
Life Cycle of a Butterfly
Egg-->caterpilar-->chrysalis-->butterfly
Life Cycle of a Spider
Egg-->egg sack-->spiderling-->adult spider
Life Cycle of an Insect
egg-->larva-->pupa-->adult
Plant Cells vs Animal Cells
Both have cell membranes
Plant cell HAS cell wall
Life and Living Things
-made up of one or more cells
-grows and develops
-reproduces
-responds to stimuli
-requires energy
-maintains homeostasis
-adapt to environment
Carbon
-light
-makes things more manageable
-main component of all organic molecules
Ronald Reagan
Created huge budget deficits
First two years in office US experienced the worst economic downturn since the depression. Pushed supply side economist which focused on supply of goods rather than demand.
Conservative
Pro business
14th president
Popular Sovereignty
Let people in a territory decide whether slavery would be aloud there.
PEOPLE have the power.
power to vote and recall.
Pure Democracy (Greece)
-Men of voting age met and voted together
-New England town meetings
-Anyone who is registered can go and vote
Direct democracy
town meetings
Representational (U.S.)
Represents a certain region
ex. Scott Brown represents U.S.
Fascism
- a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power
-forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism
-emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism (Mussolini)
Capitalism
economy based on the market price decided by supply and demand (economic system)
Emergence of National Market
Related to the expansion of railroads
Main function of entrepreneurs in Capitalist Economy
organized land, labor, and capital for productive purposes
Free enterprise
Economic system characterized by private or cooperate ownership of capital goods.
Entrepreneurs can decide what to do, how much to produce. Market dictates.
Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
-Civilization began in the Middle East in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys.
-Early civilizations in Asia and Africa developed in river valleys because of the fertile land and proximity of water
-Increased agricultural production
5 Common Characteristics of civiliations
1. advanced technical skills
2. cities with a form of government
3. divisions of labor (different people perform different jobs)
4. a calendar
5. a system of writing
Ancient Greece
Development of analytical secular history, naturalistic art, philosophical dialogue, and systematic logic
-divided into city-states
-Golden Age of Athens was a time of writing and learning
-Democracy developed during this period
Greek Gods
Important and portrayed with flaws and problems just like the average person
Accomplishments of the Greeks
-Scientific approach to medicine -geometry
-famous playwrights -literature and poetry
-philosophy -sculpture
-democracy -studied plants
-wrote first histories
-architectures
Ancient Rome: Accomplishments of the Romans
-judicial system
-life-like sculptures
-language (latin) base of all languages
-created peace
-roman numerals
-building roads, bridges, etc.
Ancient Rome: Fall of the Roman Empire
-no elections (to select emperor)
-military not fit to govern
-change in empire would cause civil war
-high taxes to support military
-competition between small and large farmers
-low food production
-disease
Norman Conquest (Medieval Feudal System)
William the Conqueror defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings.
Disagreement to who should take over he throne. William of Normandy or Harold. King Edward died. Both William and Harold were told they they could take over. When Edward died Harold took over the throne. William got support from the pope. William becomes king and brings the feudal system
Battle of Hastings
Battle between Harold (Saxon) and William of Normandy. William wins and is crowned king of England.
Norman Conquest: Impact on English Language
French words come into English
ex. debut
Norman Conquest: Impact on English Society
feudal system introduced
Feudal System
Political and economic system in medieval Europe, in which lesser lords receive lands from powerful nobles in exchange for service.
brought order to society after the Dark Ages. the pope and Catholic Church were the center of society and held the power. Kings answered to the people and all art and culture centered around the church.
Built upon I owe you you owe me. Pope controls everybody.

KING owned all the land and granted land to his loyal followers (nobles).
NOBLES provide the king with a knights, money, advice, and a place to stay while traveling. Job is to protect The Lord. Vassal is anyone who accepted a fief (gift from the king)
LORDS country was divided into knights' fees. Each was supplied with a manor and had to provide one knight to the king
VILLEINS received land in return for working in the lord's manor. Could not sell land
SERFS no land. Worked for the lords
Magna Carta
Signed by the king. It granted certain rights to English nobles and became the foundation for future ideals of liberty and justice.
John became king of England in 1199 and raised taxes which upset the pope and nobles. Nobles rebelled and forced him to sign the Magna Carta

-King is the ruler but he must obey the law
-King cannot tax without a meeting of the Great Council (beginning of British Parliament)
-King cannot put any free man in jail without a trial
The Renaissance
(14th-18th centuries 1300-1700)
Period of cultural/artistic/scientific rebirth based on the -Classical Period of ancient Greece and Rome
-Began in northern Italy
-Celebrated the individuals as opposed to the group (as did the Medieval Age)
-People interested in material things
Renaissance: Michelangelo
-artist
Renaissance: Johannes Gutenberg
-invented the Gutenberg printing press
Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinchi
-artist
-scientist
-painter
Renaissance: Galileo Galilei
Supported theory that the earth revolved around the sun which questioned the church's thinking.
-astronomer
-scientist
Renaissance: Copernicus
Invented the telescope got the ball rolling for galalieo
-astronomer
Renaissance: Chaucer
-author of Canterbury Tales
Renaissance: Shakespeare
-poet
-playwright
Printing Press (15th century)
-changed society
-Information was out there
-faster and cheaper
-influenced the diffusion of religious ideas during the Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther published his works which spread rapidly through Europe)

Before the printing press, books were expensive and took months to produce
Enlightenment (18th century
Includes the question of the rights of man kind. Becomes political.
Emphasized science and reason to improve society.
-Applied reason to all aspects of political, social, philosophical and scientific thought.
-people can govern myself (critical of government).
-Influence of American Revolution
-centered upon reason as opposed to god and the bible.
-democracy, capitalism, scientific method developed.
Enlightenment: Benjamin Franklin
Contributed to the Declaration of Independence.
-printer, statesman, writer, colonial inventor.
Enlightenment: Joh Locke
-philosopher (identity and self)
Enlightenment: Sir Isaac Newton
-Scientist (laws of motion)
Enlightenment: Thomas Jefferson
Third president. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Firm believer in the people and decentralized power; reduced the federal government.
-states man (liberty and equality)
Enlightenment: George Washington
First president. Led American in the war for independence. Set the two-term maximum for presidential office.
- general
-politician
-education
Enlightenment: Immanuel Kant
-philosopher (human nature governs experience)
European Exploration
-European nations began to explore the world in search for money
-looking for trade route to Asia
-Gold, silver
-claim new lands
-adventure
-convert natives to christianity
European Exploration: Impact of explorers
Led to Colombian exchange or transatlantic trade.
-learned about crops (corn, etc)
-Natives introduced to firearms
-Europeans brought diseases (small pox) to the New World which wiped out many populations of Natives
-Europeans took land by force and cleared forests
European Exploration: Christopher Columbus
-Spain 1492
-explored the West Indies. Wanted to find a sea route.
-awareness of continents. Thought the world was round.
Wanted to gain fame, fortune, and spread Catholicism
European Exploration: Vasco de Gama
-Portugal, 1497
-first to reach India
European Exploration: Ferdinand Magellan
-Spain, 1509
-first to sail around the world
European Exploration: Herman Cortes
Eager for wealth.
-Spain, 1521
-Conquered Aztecs for gold and land
European Exploration: Francisco Pizarro
-Spain, 1533
-Conquered Incas for gold and land
European Exploration: Henry Hudson
-Netherlands 1609
-Hudson River and Hudson Bay
(possible essay question) What kind of impact or influences did the Explores bring over to the indigenous population in North America
1. Mercantilism: economic theory that a country should acquires much gold and silver by exporting more goods than it imports. System of trade that was enforced during enlightenment.
2. Triangular Trade: sugar-->rum-->slaves (cycle). Trade between Americas, Europe, and Africa. Americans would go to Africa get the slaves then go to the islands and trade the slaves for rum and sugar.
3. Technological: guns, horses, trade, currency
4. Political: land ownership, disease (small pox) and wiped out tribes
Timeline: Road to Independence
French and Indian war-->treaty of Paris ends French and Indian war--> stamp act (taxes)--> battle of Lexington and concord--> Declaration of Independence declared--> British surrender to Americans--> treaty of Paris ends the war and recognizes the US as an independent nation.
French and Indian War (Seven Years War) 1756-1763
-fought between colonies of British America and New France
-French were outnumbered so they used Indian allies
-Conflict began with France's expansion to the Ohio River
-British declared war
French and Indian War (Seven Years War) 1756-1763
Causes of war include rivalry between Britain (and American colonists) and France (and Indian allies) for control of North America. The treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian war in Europe. Although British won, it created tension between them and the American colonists. British thought that they did not provide enough support for the war.
-fought for economics and natural resources
-fought between colonies of British America and New France
-French were outnumbered so they used Indian allies
-Conflict began with France's expansion to the Ohio River
-British declared war
Revolutionary War 1775
American colonists war of independence from Britain. Issues behind the revolution include the sugar act, the quartering act, the stamp act, sons of anarchy boycotting British goods, Townsend acts, boston massacre, boston yea party, intolerable acts, etc.
-struggle for power.
-kicked off with the Battle of Lexington.
-13 colonies fought for independence from British rule to become the United States
-George Washington commander and chief of American Army
-One major cause for the war was that the Great Britain spent too much money on the French and Indian war and wanted the colonies to help pay back the debt
-Great Britain began adding taxes to goods. Colonies were upset that they had to pay and were not represented by Parliament
Sugar Act
Issues to raise more money from the colonists and increase tax collection however, colonists were told that they were being taxed to regulate trade. Law cut the duty of molasses in half. This would encourage Americans to pay the tax rather than risk smuggling.
Quartering Act
Law that required colonies to provide housing and supplies for the British troops who remained in America after the French and Indian war.
The Stamp Act
taxed on paper documents, newspapers, legal documents, etc. to help offset the cost of the French and Indian War. This is the first time British government have stated that they were being taxed to raise money.
Sons of liberty
Merchants and other colonists boycotted British goods. Sam Adams is one of the founders.
Townshend Act
taxes on goods such as oil, paint, glass, paper, etc. This led to protest and violence.
Boston massacre
Britain sent troops to control the violence from the Townsend act on the colonists. A small crowd of colonists threatened the British soldiers and shots were fired leaving 5 colonists dead. Parliament cancelled Townsend taxes.
Tea act
Law that gave the right to sell tea in America without paying the normal taxes.
Boston tea party
Colonists protested and disguised themselves as Indians and boarded three tea ships. They broke open every crate of tea and dumped it into the harbor.
Intolerable acts
Extended Canada's boundary south to the Ohio river to punish Boston. This stripped MA, CT, VA, of their claims to western land.
Declaration of Independence
-written in 17 days by Thomas Jefferson in 1776
-expressed individual rights of citizens
-All men are created equal
-Nation now known as the United States of America and is no longer connected with Great Britain
-Associate writers: Ben Franklin, John Adams
Articles of Confederation
-first attempt of government written by Americans (first attempt of a constitution)
-drafted by Continental Congress
-Agreement among the 13 states that established the US as a confederation and served as the First Constitution
-replaced by the US constitution
US Constitution 1789
-basis of government
-checks and balances
-electoral college
-how a bill becomes a law
-supreme law of the USA
-originally consisted of 7 Articles
-first three talked about the separation of powers (3 branches)
Branches of Government: Legislative
-Makes the laws
-Made up of the Senate (2 per state) and the House of Representatives (based on each persons population)
Branches of Government: Executive
-carries out the laws
-President, Vice President, Cabinet (nominated by the president and approved by the senate with at least 51 votes)
Branches of Government: Judicial
-evaluates laws
-made up of the supreme court (9 justices nominated by the President and approved by the Senate by at least 51 votes) and federal courts
Checks and Balances
Each branch is given power to check the other two branches
-President has the power to veto a bill sent from Congress, which would stop it from becoming a law.
-Congress has the power to impeach Supreme Court Judges or Presidents.
-The Supreme Court has the power to overturn a law that they believe is unconstitutional.
Electoral College
-Used to select the President and Vice President
-number of electors depends on the size of the state
-representatives from each state
Capitalism
-Economic system that features private ownerships of means of production
-market forces determine the way goods are produced and which income and profit are distributed
Popular sovereignty
-Allowed territories to decide if they wanted to enter the Union as a free or slave state
Horace Mann
-Education Reform 1830's
-Universal Education
-education should be paid for, controlled, and maintained
-embrace children from varying backgrounds
-taught by well trained professionals
Native Americans on the plains
religion based on spirits.
Independent Texas
was an independent state before joining the U.S. Revolted against Mexican rule. Manifest destiny. Sam Houston. Houston beat Santa Ana and gains independence.
Industrial Revolution (1760's)
-water-powered or steam-driven machines replaced labor
-goods were produced faster
-products became less expensive than hand made products
-First big industry was the Textile Industry: produced 50 times more cloth
Industrial Revolution: Effects on Society
1. People moved from farming jobs to city/factory jobs to get more $--->led to overcrowding and unsanitary conditions leading to cholera. Expanded middle class

2.Expansion of railroads developed a national market. Could have cities where you never did before. Trade used to have to be done over waterways.

3. North industrialized faster than the South. South still focused on agriculture and production of slavery----> this led to the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
American Civil War (1861-1865)
*possible essay
-fought between the North (US) and the South (Confederates)
-began over slavery in the south and the industrialized north
-south was afraid that slavery would be abolished nation-wide
-Southern troops bombarded Fort Sumter
-North was more powerful than the south-->more factories, men, $
-Battle of Gettysburg:Bloodiest war, turning point of the Civil War when the South began to lose-->Gettysbur address by Lincoln
-North won and left the South in ruins Lincoln was President at the time-->issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed the slaves in the southern states and laid the groundwork for slaves to eventually be freed across the country
Civil War: Inventors (5)
Alexander Graham Bell-->telephone
Samuel Morse-->telegraph/morse code
Thomas Edison-->phonograph/electric light
Henry Ford-->assembly line/automobile industry
Eli Whitney-->cotton gin
Civil War: Industrialists (5)
Andrew Carnegie-->steel
Milton Hershey-->chocolate
J.P. Morgan-->finance
John D. Rockerfeller-->oil
Cornelius Vanderbilt-->railroads
1920's
-Boom time. Economic growth.
-industrial revolution
-cars (Henry food)
-leisure time
-extra money
Woman get the right to vote
The Depression
-1929 stock market crash
-drought in the midwest
-banks failing-->people losing their savings
-Herbert Hoover was the President
WWI (1914-1918)
CONFLICT BETWEEN: The Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) and the Allied Powers (France, Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, and (from 1917) the U.S.)
-CAUSE: Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in June 1914. Militarism, Imperialism, nationalism and alliance system.
-War between countries for acquiring colonies or territory or resources.
-OUTCOME: German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were defeated. Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires ceased to exist. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict.
WWII (1939-1945): Cause
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor which shocked the American people. Roosevelt requests to declare war. German Surrenders and the war in Europe ends.
-CONFLICT BETWEEN: The Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allied Powers (France, Britain, the U.S., the Soviet Union, and China)
-CAUSE: Political and economic instability in Germany. The harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles Rise of power of Adolf Hitler and his alliance with Italy and Japan to oppose the Soviet Union
-War of ideologies, such as Fascism and Communism.
-OUTCOME: The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers. The United Nations was established to foster international cooperation and prevent conflicts.
US Involvement in WWI and WWII
-did not want to become involved (isolationists)
-America's shipping rights were violated
-US economic interest and propaganda
US Involvement in WWII
America had isolationist views. However, their opinion shifted with Germany invaded Poland. Roosevelt looked for ways to send aid to the allies. France fell to the Germans and Hitler prepared to invade Britain. Americans were shocked. Some saw Roosevelt's exchanges dangerous and wanted to block aide to Britain but he provided war supplies to Britain without any payment in return. Roosevelt froze trade with Japan. Japans attack on Pearl Harbor shocked Americans and declared war on Japan.
Cold War
Competition developed after WWII for power and influence in the world, lasting until the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Tension between the Americans and the Soviets after WWII.
-clash of beliefs and ideology:democracy and capitalism (U.S.) vs. communism (Soviet).
-weapon development.
-ended with the crash of the Soviet Union.
MLK and JFK speeches
MLK: African American civil rights leader from the mid 1950's until his assassination. Used nonviolent means such as marches, boycotts, and legal challenges to win civil rights. I have a dream, nonviolent, just and unjust civil rights, end racial segregation

JFK: 35th president. Youthful and inspiring. Known for his firm handling of the CUban Missile Crisis. Assassinated. Said firepower should be replaced with international relations and impoverishing the world. Optimist
Ronald Reagan's Economic Policies
Wanted to slash taxes, eliminate unnecessary government programs,cut size of federal government.
-liberal
-gave $ to stimulate the economy
-advocated for controlling inflation, reduce gov spending
-cut taxes to cause more jobs
Connecticut River Valley
most fertile land in the state and cuts through MA from NH down to CT
Five geographic themes
1. Location
2. Place
3. Movement
4. Regions
5. Human-environment interaction
Fable
-illustrating animals and morals
Fairy tale
Magical
Figurative Language
using words to achieve a special meaning of effect.
-uses of simile and metaphor
Simile
comparison of different objects using "like" or "as"
ex. my love is like a red rose
Metaphor
-comparing two unlike objects without the use of "like" or "as"
Folklore
Based on word of mouth.
a story passed down
ex. Pecos Bill, Paul Bunyon
Free Verse
Poetry based on the natural rhythms of phrases and normal pauses
Haiku
three lines
syllables 5-7-5
Hyperbole
exaggeration or overstatement
ex. "That is the best meal I have ever had in my life"
Imagery
relating to any of the 5 senses
Irony (3 types)
-verbal irony: sarcasm
-dramatic irony (most important type for literature) when the character expects the opposite of what the reader already knows
-situational irony (cosmic irony): accidental events occur that seem oddly appropriate
Mood
A feeling or emotional state.
Modern Fiction
-imaginative yet believable story
-Magical
-outside the realm of possibility
ex. Harry Potter
Morphology
study of the structure of language
Parable
a story with religious principle, moral lesson, or general truth
Parallelism
writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length
ex. "King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable"
Personification
objects are given human character
phonology
sounds of language
how sounds are made and combined
Prose
Anything that is not poetry
ex. stories, novels, essays, etc.
Semantics
word meanings
Stanza
In poetry.
Arrangement of lines of verses
Syntax
word order and sentence structure
Diction
Word Choice
Tone
conveys attitude by looking at the choices the author makes
Epilogue
End
Prologue
Beginning
Onomatopoeia
Words that spell the way they sound
ex. buzz, poof
Adjectives
Describe a noun
Pronouns
Take the place of a noun
Adverb
-modifies a verb or an adjective
-they usual answer how, when, where, or to what extent
-usually end in ly
Adjective
describe a noun
ex. John went to the BIG mall
Conjunction
Join two main clauses
ex. and
Predicate
Tells something about the subject
ex. the boy WALKED HIS DOG
this tells us what the boy is doing
Prepositional Phrase
a group of words that contain a preposition and a noun
The car was left BY THE SIDE OF THE ROAD
Independent Clause
-can stand alone as a complete sentence
-contains one subject and one predicate
ex. Anthony ate all the pizza
Dependent Clause
-cannot stand alone as a complete sentence
ex. while Maria was hiding
Declarative Sentence
forms a statement not a command, question or explanation.
Biographical approach to literature criticism.
relationship between authors life and their work of literature. Personal.
Formalist Criticism
critiques the element of form, style, and structure.
Deconstructionist criticism
says that language cannot be accurately represented by reality.
Reader response criticism
translates between the physical text and the mind of the reader.
Ballad
tells a story, like a folk tale
Blank Verse
unrhymed (Shakespeare)
Consonance
Repetition of consonant sounds. typically found at the end of a word.
ex. frost cost
Couplet
Pair of lines same in length usually rhyme and form complete thought
Iambic Pentameter
5 rhythmic units. Common in English poetry.
Lymerick
humorous poem
refrain
line repeated throughout a poem
sonnett
14 lines long
verse
single metrical line of poetry
lexicon
vocabulary of language
allegory
represents abstract concepts as characters
meter
stressed and unstressed syllables
assonance
repetition of vowel sounds creating rhyming.