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Astronomy Chapter 4- Keeter
Terms in this set (27)
The acceleration of gravity on Earth is approximately 10 m/s2 (more precisely, 9.8 m/s2). If you drop a rock from a tall building, about how fast will it be falling after 3 seconds?
Suppose you lived on the Moon. Which of the following would be true?
Your weight would be less than your weight on Earth, but your mass would be the same as it is on Earth.
Which of the following describes a speed, according to an astronomer?
10 light-years per 1 million years
Which of the following statements is NOT one of Newton's Laws of Motion?
What goes up must come down.
Which of the following examples describes a situation where a car is experiencing a net force?
The car is making a gradual turn
Suppose that two objects collide. Which of the following things is NOT the same both before and after the collision?
the total temperature of the objects
When a spinning ice skater pulls in his arms, he spins faster because _________.
his angular momentum must be conserved, so reducing his radius must increase his speed of rotation
What does temperature measure?
the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
According to the universal law of gravitation, if you triple the distance between two objects, then the gravitational force between them _________.
decreases by a factor of 9
Why is Newton's version of Kepler's third law so useful to astronomers?
It can be used to determine the masses of many distant objects.
Which statement must be true in order for a rocket to travel from Earth to another planet?
It must attain escape velocity from Earth.
As a giant cloud of gas collapses due to gravity, you would expect its rate of rotation to
Which of the following represents a change from potential energy to kinetic energy?
A rock starting from rest on a high cliff, then moving faster and faster as it falls.
Suppose two objects are attracting each other gravitationally. If you double the distance between them, the strength of their gravitational attraction __________.
decreases by a factor of 4
Which of the following are allowed orbital paths under gravity?
An object's ________ is its mass times its velocity, and we say that it has _____________ if it is rotating or turning on a curved path.
On Earth, the __________ tells us that the _______ of a falling object increases by about 10 m/s for each second it falls.
acceleration of gravity
If you stand on a scale on the Moon, your _______ will be different than it is on Earth but your __________ will be the same.
If you are in free-fall, then your weight will be __________?
If your momentum is changing, then a(n) ________ must be acting on you.
Why are astronauts (and other objects) weightless inside the International Space Station as it orbits Earth?
They are in free-fall
Newtons First Law of Motion
an object moves at constant velocity if there is no net force acting upon it.
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Force= Mass x Acceleration
Newton's Third Law of Motion
for any force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force.
Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion
a planet moves faster in the part of its orbit nearer the Sun and slower when farther from the Sun, sweeping out equal areas in equal times.
Kepler'sFirst Law of Planetary Motion
the orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion
more distant planets orbit the Sun at slower average speeds, obeying the precise mathematical relationship p^2 =a^3.
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