250 terms

food science exam 6

Nutrition is by far the most universally important reason that all people use for choosing the foods they eat and has a major role in every decision consumers make when it is mealtime, Is this true of false?
The fundamental function for foods is to provide energy and nutrients for maintaining good ______.
proper cross-contamination
Methods to limit microbes in food are promoted by the Fight BAC program and include all of the following except :
A method of food production that aims to decrease the use of fossil fuels and synthetic chemicals is called ________.
Spoiled foods are not always unsafe and unspoiled foods are not always safe. is this true or false?
The energy value obtained from fats is _______.
Campylobacter jejuni
This microorganism is a major cause of diarrhea in the world, is generally associated with poultry products, is easily controlled by cooking, and only about 20% of cases become life-threatening. what is it ________.
over cooking
what is not a frequent factor in food poisoning?
The nutrients that are needed in lesser amounts and include vitamins and minerals are ________.
what is expected to have the lowest water content?
Food borne infections require the consumption of viable microbes that grow and produce symptoms typical for an infectious disease. this this true or false?
Inspect every meat carcass
what is not a responsibility of the FDA?
all of the above
A current issue in food science is ______
all of the above
Which of the following may influence food choices that are made by consumers?
potable water
Unsafe foods that make individuals sick may be due to any of the following except ______?
A reasonable source of educational material to help consumers design a healthy diet is called MyPyramid and it's available to the public on-line at http://www.mypyramid.gov/. is this true or false?
According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, the number of deaths in the U.S. attributed to food poisoning is approximately ....
Good nutrition involves getting proper nutrients without consuming too many _______
Listeria monocytogenes
This pathogen causes flu-like symptoms, miscarriages, and postnatal sepsis. It is associated with many foods and is surprisingly cold-tolerant. It presents problems for manufacturers of ready-to-eat foods because it grows in refrigerators and only requires a small infectious dose. this pathogen is known as _______
Food poisoning is caused by consuming expired foods and the last meal consumed is usual vector whenever epidemiologists inspect the restaurant. true or false?
This pathogen originates from the intestinal population in animals and poultry and is a major cause of foodborne infection in the US. It is often passed via the "fecal-oral" route and undercooking of foods. It does not produce spores but is the reason for the largest recall of eggs in the U.S. this pathogen is known as ______
nutritional content
_________ is not considered a sensory property of food
avoiding exercise
what is not a way to achieve weight loss?
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The agency responsible for inspecting every animal carcass for wholesomeness is _________
Approximately how many calories correspond to a pound of body weight?
A recommended diet for average people contains 50% of calories from carbohydrates, 10% of calories from lipids, 20% of calories from protein, and 20% of calories from fiber. true or false?
meat science
Dr. Clarke's primary emphasis and research background is in _______
Edible mushrooms are known to contain a trace amount of this natural toxin. its known as ________
Nutrition is the scientific study of raw food materials and their behavior during formulation, processing, packaging, storage, and evaluation as consumer food products. true or false?
40-140 F
The temperature range known as the "Danger Zone" is where pathogenic bacteria are likely to grow at a high rate. The Danger Zone corresponds to which temperature range?
Food ingredients that slow spoilage and prevent food-borne illnesses are ______
Food safety is effectively controlled by the government through mandatory product recalls and confidence that consumers are the most skilled food handlers with no possible means to contaminate foods. true or false?
A potential problem associated with low carbohydrate and high protein diets that results from low blood glucose and may result in brain damage is _________.
Safety and nutritive value of food is a function of all the following except _______
what is not considered an example of a deficiency disease?
list of ingredients
Features on the Nutrition Fact label include all of the following except _______
fast-food restaurants
First-adopters are likely to have their food choices influenced greatly by _______
Economic, personal, and political considerations may affect food choices made by consumers. true or false?
what parasites is obtained by consuming under-cooked meats from garbage-eating animals like bears?
orthorexia nervosa
An obsession with healthful eating leading to the elimination of "bad" foods and limiting the choices for "good" foods is ________
adding jalapenos and antacids
Foods are kept hot (and safe) at fast-food restaurants by using all of the following techniques except
Compliance with Kosher laws or Halal laws is representative of which category of food choice influence?
slow foods
The emphasis on quality with the experience covering all stages from shopping, preparing and enjoying the food is part of the movement towards ________
green tea extract
what is an example of a nutraceutical?
Areas in food science may include all of the following except what?
Clostridium botulinum
This organism causes a potentially lethal intoxication with central nervous system effects, requires an anaerobic environment for toxin production, produces spores, and the toxin is one of the most deadly proteins known
Pediococcus cerevisiae
Microbes associated with food disease and death will include all of the following except:
Allergens of major concern include all of the following except ________
Staphylococcus aureus causes an intoxication known as "food-handlers" disease because it is associated with the skin and nose of people who prepare foods without proper hand washing. The toxin produced by this organism is very heat-stable. true or false?
Replacing fats in food has no effect on taste or texture of food.
With regards to reducing fat intake as a way to reduce calories, which of the following statements is false?

1. Scientists have developed some fake fats.
2. Selecting lower fat versions of some foods is possible.
3. Eliminating fats from the diet is unhealthy.
4. Replacing fats in food has no effect on taste or texture of food. X
5. Substituting carbs or protein for fat may work to reduce calories.
The major protein of milk that is colloidal and kept apart by negative charges on surfaces is ______
Eggs may be used in food preparation for all of the following except _______
Radiation can be applied at high doses to sterilize a product or may be used at low doses to be the equivalent of _________
water activity
Removing moisture from foods reduces the ability of microbes to grow. A consequence of drying is a reduction in ______
aseptic processing
A processing method that sterilizes product prior to packaging is ________
A forming technique whereby material is forced, by compression, through a shaped opening in a die to produce a continuous profile and a wide variety of products is ______
Packaging often functions to keep water, odors and gases in the product while excluding water, oxygen, odors and light. true or false?
Store eggs away from foods like onions and cabbage
Which of the following is false
1. Eggs add flavor and enhance other flavors in foods
2. Store eggs away from foods like onions and cabbage
3. Egg whites may substitute for whole eggs in most egg dishes
4. Clean, unbroken eggs should be selected for purchase
5. Keep eggs at room temperature for freshness

Cage-free alternatives
Hens raised outdoors produce eggs labeled as _______
Which of the following is not a water treatment step in the production of soft drinks?
Processed foods are products such as canned peas, corn oil, or orange juice that have been preserved so they will not spoil as quickly as fresh, whole foods. true or false?
Modified starches used in making products such as instant pudding (dessert) are derived from______
high pressure treatment
Which of the following is not considered a major type of food processing?
Convection involves heat transfer through a material due to molecular movement. true or false?
reduce or eliminate harmful microbes
The primary reason foods are processed is to _____
The rearrangement of fatty acids on an oil (or triglyceride) to affect its melting temperature is ________
acidified foods
Low acid foods to which acids are added so the pH is 4.6 or less and aw is 0.85 or more are called ________
The removal of colored substances from vegetable oil using diatomaceous earth clays at 194°F is ________
Fats are usually liquid at room temperature. true or false?
what is not a step in the process of wet milling for production of corn starch?
Shelf life, packaging, and cost are always the most important considerations in the design of a food process. true or false?
Pasteurized process cheese
The blending of "green curd" with ripened cheese and emulsifier salts then cooking, cooling and packaging describes the making of _____
The addition of hydrogen to unsaturated double bonds in oil to produce a solid that can be spread easily is _________
Operations that provide prepared foods for consumption off-site or in-house are ________
nutritional consequences
The benefits of formulated foods include all of the following except ______
what ingredient is used for some formulated foods to form dispersions, sols and gels which stiffen the texture of pies, fillings, jams and jellies.
The breed of hen determines the color of the egg shell. true or false?
starter cultures of Pseudomonas and Propionibacteria organisms
Which of the following choices creates a false statement?
Ice cream is frozen foam containing _______
Prepared foods
Foods that are ready to eat or ready to heat and then eat are classified as ______
The science of biological changes applied to fruits and vegetables from harvest to consumption is postharvest physiology. true or false?
shelf life
The length of time that a food product may be kept before it should be discarded is called ________
Reducing sugars are lipophilic and are used as emulsifiers in salad dressing.
Which of the following is false?

1. Sugars are a major source of calories in formulated foods.
2. Sugars provide bulk, structure and flavor in formulated foods.
3. Artificial sweeteners have and intense flavor so a small portion can sweeten large batches.
4. Some artificial sweeteners are heat sensitive and better for soft drinks than baking.
5. Reducing sugars are lipophilic and are used as emulsifiers in salad dressing.
Modified atmosphere packaging
The use of low oxygen atmosphere along with elevated nitrogen or carbon dioxide to package meats is ______
A unit operation that is not utilized in the manufacture of hot dogs is ________
Lactococci and Lactobacilli
The major cultures used in cheese-making include ________
Phospholipid content
The major cultures used in cheese-making include _______
Fats and oils are highly soluble in water and not soluble in organic solvents. true or false?
what is considered to be a stabilizer?
salt and sugar
The most common preservatives are _______
Which of the following is an example of a climacteric fruit ________
all of the above
Olestra (sucrose ester) is classified as a _______
To be labeled "Vanilla Ice Cream", the product may contain over 50% artificial flavoring. true or false?
all of the above
Eggs are used in other products such as _____
Cold shortening
A toughening of meat that occurs if the muscles are frozen before rigor mortis occurs is ________
canned peas
Formulated foods are products that are mixtures of ingredients and are generally not recognizable as their original plant or animal source. Which of the following is not classified as a formulated food?
Cooked and dried alimentary paste describes pasta. true or false?
chilled foods
Fresh meat, poultry and seafood are examples of ________
The production of gases (carbon dioxide) in dough that contribute to the volume achieved during baking is _______
Mozzarella cheese
what popular cheese in America with 45-52% moisture and the curd is given a "pasta filata" treatment that aligns proteins into fibers?
spray drying
A drying method that cannot be applied to solid foods like meat or cheese is _______?
all ingredients in descending order
The list of ingredients on a packaged food item will include ______
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (1994) is a major law regulating foods. true or false?
all of the above
Which of the following is true?

1. Line extensions are new flavors or slight modifications that require changes on the label.
2. Line extensions are defined as changes in a product feature.
3. Line extensions are similar to existing products.
4. Line extensions often have a success rate that is greater than novel introductions.
5. All of the above
in decreasing order from most to least
The product ingredients contained on general product labeling are listed _______
The Federal Meat Inspection Act (1906) established "zero-cancer-risk" for food additives. true or false
pilot plants
Miniaturized equipment to mimic operations in a manufacturing plant are contained in ______
GAP and GHP are part of the on farm regulation of fresh fruit and vegetables by _______
what does not contribute a sensation of "heat" in foods?
Safety and nutritional content of foods are examples of hidden characteristics because they are important to consumers but are not readily detected. true or false?
developing nanobased sensors or tracers
Bioterrorists may be foiled in any attempts to contaminate foods in the future by _______
Examples of chemical hazards associated with food-borne illness include all of the following except _____
all of the above
New products developed by food scientists may be found at _____
Class III
The category of recall that involves a violation of agency rules but does not involve a danger to the public is ______
Factors that affect reliability of instruments used for measurement of food characteristics include all of the following except _______
all of the above
Depending on the recommendation of packaging engineers, which of the following is a good material for packaging foods ______
The approximate percentage of products that survive to be a commercial success is ________
Food Drug and Cosmetic Act 1938
what food law protects the safety and quality of foods by prohibiting adulteration and misbranding.
reduce the need for proteomics
Genetically modified organisms are produced to improve food in several ways which include all of the following except _______
add 1 cup of modified corn starch
To make thin cookies, one should follow all of the following suggestions except _____
Quality control (QC) involves testing products to make sure that they meet standards and comply with regulations. true or false?
physical and chemical properties
The study of microencapsulation as an application in food products would be an example of _______
mother's maiden name
With regards to demographics used to determine market needs for a food product, which of the following is not considered to be important information?
The addition of ingredients in an attempt to fool the consumer is ______
what is not a topic of interest that would be relevant to microbiology?
How close the estimate is to the real value is ______
In a HACCP system, actively measuring product temperature during the process of manufacturing a food reflects the establishment of _______
To make chewy cookies, one should melt the butter, use bread flour, reduce the egg white and use a high ratio of brown sugar to white sugar. true or false?
Low calorie versions of existing products are examples of which type of improvement for a line extension?
The agency responsible for regulation of all meat products distributed in interstate commerce is ______
Chemical feeling factors include all of the following except ______
net weight
what is not required information on the nutrition facts label?
idea generation
what is not a step in the development of a new product that would involve testing an actual sample?
Both FDA and USDA currently have the authority to require a mandatory recall of unsafe food products by the manufacturer. true or false?
all of the above
Which of the following agencies has a role in the regulation of the food industry?
Value describes the properties of food that can be measured by food scientists. true or false?
new technology
The use of an extruder for making brand new products is an example of which reason for product development?
Product contamination
A major obstacle to food quality and safety is _______
Quality Assurance
A program that considers the whole process when evaluating quality with emphasis that a consistent process results in a quality product is ______
The range of lightness to darkness of color is ______
Product development includes everything from the generation of new food product ideas to the product launch into the marketplace. true or false?
what is not a change in product feature associated with a line extension?
development stage
A development stage where a bench-top or prototype product is created is called _____
replace heat exchange for processing
Ultrasound is an alternative food processing technique being investigated to _______
scaling up
The transition from pilot plant production to commercial plant production is an example of _____
consumer acceptability
The willingness to buy and eat a product is _______
In food science, basic research focuses on general problems while applied research is directed at specific problems. true or false?
All the sensations in the mouth from the first bite, through chewing, to swallowing is ______
Orthonasal refers to the detection of aroma at the back of the mouth. true or false?
A science-based approach to prevent the production of unsafe foods is ______
Which of the following is associated with a food intolerance that does not involve the immune system?
The factor affecting chemistry of plant tissue by causing leaching is_______
9 kcal/g
The energy value of fats is _____
what is not a noncaloric item?
A biological process in which microorganisms induce a series of chemical reactions leading to food preservation is _______
10-15% of caloric intake
The recommended daily protein intake for a normal diet is _______
The form of carbohydrate that is stored in muscles as a source of energy and is also known as animal starch is glycogen. true or false?
A single-celled eukaryote such as Giardia lamblia is a _______
the forced addition of hydrogen atoms to the unsaturated bonds of fatty acids is _______
dental caries
Besides the accumulation of fat, which of the following is associated with the overconsumption of carbohydrates?
The delivery of nutrients and oxygen to all of the body's cells by the vascular system is called bioavailability. true or false?
what is not a pigment associated with plant tissues?
lag phase
The stage in a microbial growth curve where there is little or no growth because the microbes are adjusting to the environment is ______
The Maillard reaction is associated with nonenzymatic browning and flavor development in which product?
An intentional food additive used as an emulsifier in making chocolates is caffeine. true or false?
dietary fiber
Dairy products are a good source of many nutrients, but which of the following is not usually associated with milk and cheese?
Yeasts are multicellular prokaryotes whose growth is evidenced by mycelium.
Which of the following is false?
1. Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes found almost everywhere.
2. Anaerobic microorganisms cannot tolerate oxygen.
3. Molds tolerate the lowest water activity.
4. Yeasts are multicellular prokaryotes whose growth is evidenced by mycelium.
5. The hurdle concept refers to a strategy where a series of nonlethal levels of controls are implemented.
The temperature range (in Fahrenheit!) that is called the Danger Zone for supporting microbial growth is ______
linoleic acid
An example of a bioactive fatty acid studied for numerous health effects and predominantly found in ruminant products or health supplements is ______
The type of structure that describes the three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule is called the primary structure. true or false?
Inhibitors that are added directly to foods are called _______
on the same side of the C=C (carbon double bond)
In the cis configuration of a fatty acid, the hydrogen (H) atoms are bonded in which position?
acidified foods
Foods with a pH greater than 4.6 and a water activity of 0.85 or more are called ______
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The most beneficial microorganism for fermentation in the making of bread, wine, cider or beer is ______
The term that refers to alkali treatment of chocolate to reduce acidity and darken color is ______
Food engineering is the systematic evaluation and understanding of water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other ingredients, such as food additives, as they undergo chemical interaction/reaction during harvest, storage, and distribution of foods. true or false?
Eschericia coli O157:H7
what is considered to be an example of a dangerous pathogenic microorganism?
xanthan gum
Vegetable gums are long chain polymers used for thickening, gelling and binding. One derived from microbial fermentation
is ______
Starch and cellulose are examples of _______
Unlike lakes (FD&C colorants, not bodies of water!) and oleoresins which are generally soluble in oils, dyes and essential oils are usually water soluble for coloring and flavoring foods and beverages. true or false?
Malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and phosphoric acid are most accurately classified as which type of food additive?
what is an example of an extrinsic factor that affects growth of microbes?
The digestive disorder associated with the bacterium called Helicobacter pylori is _______
The processing step in chocolate manufacture that is used for flavor development and to smooth the texture by stirring while chocolate is molten is called conching. true or false?
calcium silicate
Which of the following is not typically classified as a preservative?
Lipoproteins should be the main source of calories in the diet in order to emulsify the contents of the intestine and increase absorption of essential nutrients.
Which of the following is false?
1. Lipoproteins are water soluble substances that transport fat and cholesterol in the blood.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) carry cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the body.
3. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) carry cholesterol back to the liver.
4. Lipoproteins should be the main source of calories in the diet in order to emulsify the contents of the intestine and increase absorption of essential nutrients.
5. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) carry cholesterol from the liver to body cells.
what does not have a character-impact compound that is effective for use as an artificial flavorant
1. Humans are unable to synthesize fatty acids that have double bonds in the omega-3 or omega-6 positions.
Which of the following is true?
1. Humans are unable to synthesize fatty acids that have double bonds in the omega-3 or omega-6 positions. X
2. At least 55-75% of calories in a normal diet should be obtained from lipid sources.
3. Triglycerides are made from a fatty acid backbone with three glycerol molecules attached.
4. Fat replacers from protein or carbohydrate sources do not contribute calories to food products.
5. Lipids are primarily composed of polar groups to make them soluble in water and that's why they are hydrophilic.
Melting point of fats increases with longer chain length and greater degree of saturation for the fatty acids. true or false?
The pair of organisms commonly used in the starter culture for yogurt processing are ______
Every protein has an amino end and an acid end. true or false?
Which of the following is used for the pharmaceutical inhibition of fat absorption?
what is used for the pharmaceutical inhibition of fat absorption?
all of the above
Food borne illness outbreaks are most commonly associated with a few similar causes. Which of the following is a potential cause of illness outbreaks?
Vitamin K is not a fat soluble vitamin. true or false
vitamin C
Which of the following is a noncaloric item?
what is an example of an alkaloid compound found in chocolate?
essential fatty acids
what is not an example of an indirect food additive?
what is a process that removes dietary fiber from grains?
essential fatty acids
Oils from plant sources such as peanuts, soybeans and sunflower seeds are mainly useful for providing _____
what is not an essential amino acid?
Some microorganisms have been modified genetically in order to produce an enzyme that is identical to the rennet obtained from animals. This enzyme can produce better quality cheese than animal rennet, was approved by the FDA in 1990, and is called _____
According to the International Society for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, crops enhanced through biotechnology were planted extensively in all of these countries except _______
genetic modification
An example of animal biotechnology that facilitates breeding of the healthiest and most productive livestock but where the genetic makeup of the animal is not changed in any way is called ________
The field of psychrometrics is concerned with evaluating thermodynamic properties of mixed gases present in air and an application of this is in the evaporation of water from food. true or false?
all of the above
what is an important requirement for conducting sensory tests?
Pasteurization and freezing always exhibit boundary layers whenever the scraped surface heat exchanger used is offset by low heat capacity and insulation. true or false?
consumer acceptance test
A sensory test in which 75-150 human subjects are asked if the product is liked or which sample is their preference would be called a _______
thawing on a kitchen counter at room temperature
what is not considered by USDA to be one of the safe methods for thawing a frozen turkey?
color-blindness of the individual
what is not a factor affecting flavor perception?
genetic engineering
All of the following represent a list of basic principles associated with food engineering _______
Genetic engineering is normally the work of a food engineer. true or false?
discrimination test
A time-consuming sensory test that provides detailed quantitative information using 8-12 trained panelists who were screened for their acuity and answers the question of how products differ in sensory attributes would be called a _______
discrimination test
Psychrometric charts represent the physical properties of air and may include any of the following except ______
all of the above
Sensory quality is a complex response that is derived by human perception of ______
one calorie
The ratio of the heat capacity of a food to that of water is called _______
Sensory evaluation is defined as the scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret human reactions to those characteristics of foods and beverages as they are perceived by senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing. true or false?
vegetable oil
Based on composition and the fact that microwave ovens are effective because they heat foods that contain water, which one of the following does not heat well in a microwave oven?
Flavor is the combination of aroma and _______
abe lincoln
Which of the following former presidents was responsible for establishing Thanksgiving as a national holiday on the fourth Thursday of November?
Anosmia may be a temporary or permanent condition where some people lack (or lose) the ability to smell. true or false?
The sensory scientist may use monosodium glutamate to train panelists to recognize which taste?
kilo Joules
One of choices of units used by food engineers to measure heat energy is ________
increasing costs
what is not considered a benefit of food biotechnology?
The study of flow and deformation characteristics of foods is called ________
using recombinant DNA technology
Combining DNA molecules from different sources into one molecule in a test tube is called ________
Processing wastes from food companies may be reprocessed into by-products, converted to animal feed, used for compost, or subjected to other proper disposal methods. true or false?
high-pressure liquid chromatography
Chemical components that contribute to taste and aroma may be measured using which instrument?
Viscosity is the rate of heat transfer through a unit of thickness. true or false?
The character-impact compound associated with the aroma of cherries or almonds is
triangle test
The type of discrimination test that is arranged for panelists to select the sample that is most different from the other two samples is known as a ______
A brine solution to enhance juiciness and flavor of turkey may contain all the following except _____
triangle test
A test method that is used to determine the level at which an ingredient can be detected or recognized is called a ________
Natural pigments found in meats include ________
all of the above
An example of a Newtonian food that shows no change in viscosity as shear rate is increased would be _______
latent heat
Heat input that results in a change of state (freezing/melting or condensing/boiling) is called ______
A broad term that applies to the use of living organisms and covers techniques that range from simple (selective breeding) to sophisticated (recombinant DNA technology) for food products or animal agriculture is _______
Supertasters have more than the usual number of taste buds and tend to be more sensitive to taste qualities such as bitterness, sweetness, and saltiness. true or false?
The transfer of heat between liquid or gas and solid surfaces is called ______
Mathematical models can never be developed to explain quality characteristics by meshing sensory results with objective data. true or false?
diminuative tests
what is not used to describe a category of sensory test types?
transfer of animal genes into food crops
An example of an ethical or moral concern that could be associated with products of genetic engineering is ________
The hardness of unripe peaches, toughness of some meat cuts, and lumpiness of poorly mashed potatoes is related to which important characteristic?
all of the above
Which of the following is used as a water treatment method for food processing companies?
retronasal perception
Aroma perceived at the back of the throat is called _____
focus groups
Small groups used to decide which product concepts to reject or develop are called ______
thermal conduction
Which of the following is not an example of mass transfer?
consumer acceptability
Sensory panels are used to measure quality because the results are relevant to _______
Examples of affective or hedonic tests are either discrimination tests or descriptive tests. true or false?
Which of the following meats was not served at the original Thanksgiving in Plymouth?
Which of the following is not a type of papillae on the tongue?