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Ecocentrist and anthropocentrist who argued that we should protect America's natural environment in its pristine, unaltered state

John Muir

Conservationist who advocated protection of nature for its beauty and usefulness; founder of the US Forest Service


American transcendentalist writer who viewed nature as a direct manifestation of the devine

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Proposed the categorical imperative, which advocates treating others as you would wish to be treated

Immanuel Kant

British utilitarian who promoted the idea that actions should maximize the overall benefit to most people

Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill

Forest ranger in Arizona and New Mexico in the early 1900s who advocated preservation of nature's integrity. He wrote, "... to keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering..."

Aldo Leopold

"If domestic fuel prices rise to $5 per gallon, conservation will increase, alternative fuels will be developed, and energy efficiency and our quality of life will improve." This philosophy is consistent with ___ economics.


Which of the following have contributed to the rapid increase in crude oil prices over the past decade?

increased demand, creation of oil carters

Why is the consumption of fossils fuels high, despite high prices?

the prices don't affect the demand of the rich

Which of the following represents one possible explanation for why the federal government has not been successful at mandating higher fuel efficiency standards for American vehicles?

lobbying of the government sponsoring

What factors might lead to more political support for higher fuel-efficiency standards?

lobbying -> the different cultural values

What alternative measures might the government take to aid in the fossil fuel crisis?

investment and alternative/renewable energy

What measures might consumers take to aid in the fossil fuel crisis?

consume green

_ Would oppose fuel efficiency standards because they believe "we will find more oil" to solve the fossil fuel crisis

neoclassical economics, cornucopians

"If domestic fuel prices rise to $5 per gallon, growth will slow significantly and our quality of life will decline." This philosophy is consistent with _ economics.


The philosophy of classical economics developed by Adam Smith

freemarket capital

Contingent valuation

uses surveys to determine how much people are willing to pay to protect or restore a resource

In general, environmentalists believe that government should

nationalize all Earth's natural resources

Which of the following values includes volunteer work and pollution in a country's goods and services?

GPI: Genuine Progress Indicator

Cassandras are

predict doom and disaster for the world

A(n) _ is best defined as one who evaluates an action based on its impact on human health, economic costs and benefits, and aesthetic concerns.


A(n) _ is best defined as one who considers abiotic environmental impacts when considering an action.


_ believe that Earth's natural systems generally operate in self-renewing cycles that are good models for sustainable economies.

ecological economist

_ is defined as the study of how we decide to use scarce resources in the face of demand.


Modern market economies generally do not address _

nonmarket values, aesthetic and cultural value

_ believe that within a market economy, economic sustainability is achieved through reduction of growth and by more efficient resource use.

environmental economists

_ is best defined as the knowledge, believes, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people.


Who is best known as the founder of the Sierra Club?


As the industrial revolution spread in the _ century from _ throughout Europe and to North America and elsewhere, it amplified human impacts on the environment.

18th, England

"Ecosystem services" include

soil formation, climate regulation, pollination, nutrient cycling, waste treatment

The EPA defines _ as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.

environmental justice

Which American president is famous for instituting protection of the California wilderness in the early 1900s?

Theodore Roosevelt

The GPI for the US

has remained flat for the past 35 years while GDP increased greatly

GPI is an acronym for

Genuine Progress Indicator

American school of philosophy exemplified by Emerson and Whitman which saw nature as a symbol of deeper spiritual truth


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